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Results for Search : "304 Factors affecting social behavior"


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Kajian kesihatan reproduktif & seksual remaja
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Ahmad, Noor Ani and
Aris, Tahir and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The increase in reproductive and social health issues among adolescents has been hotly debated both nationally and internationally. Every day, Malaysians are presented with news on adolescent misconduct, especially those involving cases of abortion and out -of -wedlock pregnancies. Therefore, a specific study to look at the level of reproductive and sexual health of adolescents and the factors that influence it was conducted based on the results of the national level of adolescent health research. Methodology this cross -sectional study was conducted in 2010 using secondary data from the Adolescent Health Screening Form (BSSK/R/1/2008) which was filled by trainees of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) in 80 NSTP camps throughout the country. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi -square test and logistic regression using SPSS software. The parameters studied included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity and level of education) and social characteristics (risky behavior, history of abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse, religion, and family relationships). While there are nine (9) SRH issues that were studied, namely masturbation, watching pornography, extramarital sex, multi -partner sex, STIs, homosexual tendencies, homosexual relationships, pregnancy and abortion. Results A total of 23,231 data were analyzed. Of these, a total of 22,750 respondents aged 18-24 years were screened for the purpose of study analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the issue of watching and reading pornographic material among adolescents recorded the highest percentage (39.5%) followed by masturbation (28.5%) and extramarital sex (6.5%). All socio -demographic factors studied had a significant relationship with extramarital sex, homosexual predisposition and abortion (p <0.05). Risk factors for extramarital sex are the age group of 20-24 years (OR = 2.710, SK95% 1.967, 3.759), risky behavior (OR = 30.495 SK95% 19.683, 47.427), involvement in substance abuse (OR = 12.33 SK95% 8,051, 18,891), anti-social (OR = 2,615 SK95% 2,206, 3,100) and ever abused (OR = 1,726 SK95% 1,389, 2,145). While the appreciation of religion is a protective factor for adolescents where the study found that adolescents who appreciate religion are twice as likely to have sex compared to adolescents who do not appreciate religion. There is no evidence to suggest that familial relationship variables influence adolescents to have sex. Conclusion overall it can be concluded that adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues need to be given serious attention. This is because the results of the study show that the trend of extramarital sex among adolescents which is a key indicator of the level of adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues has increased from 2.2% in 2004 (MPFS-4) to 6.5% in 2010. Therefore, multisectoral cooperation programs are needed to address this issue. The implementation of intervention programs should also be focused on high-risk adolescents such as having risky behaviors, anti-social and involved in cases of substance abuse. The planning and preparation of the program must also take into account the concepts and teachings of religion practiced in Malaysia through an approach that can be accepted by adolescents. Further studies need to be conducted more extensively taking into account other factors that have yet to be explored.
 
 
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Pengkelasan keberkesanan perancang keluarga menggunakan pepohon keputusan
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Rahim, Susilawati and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Awareness of the importance of family planning practices for a family institution in Malaysia began around the 1960s. In order to plan family size it is important to determine the appropriate and effective method of family planning. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop a best classification model and identify the factors of effectiveness of such methods and also for women who do not use any family planning method, factors that influence the effectiveness of non-use of methods are also identified. Classification techniques in data mining were used to obtain patterns of effectiveness of the family planning methods used. The classification techniques used are result trees J48, ID3, Random Tree, REPTree and Bayes classifier Naive Bayes. Secondary data from the fourth set of the Malaysian Population and Family Survey (MPFS) obtained from the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) were used in this study. To obtain the best classification model, 10-fold cross validation method, Weka and Mynda applications were used. The test results found that the J48 result tree was selected as the best classification model because this model provides the highest accuracy values for both data sets of 87.83% and 80.42% compared to other techniques. The study has produced a decision tree that can generate a set of tips to identify the effectiveness of family planning methods used and a set of tips to identify the effectiveness of those who do not use family planning methods. In conclusion, this study does not cover women who are using family planning methods and it is hoped that future studies will cover the effectiveness of the method for women who are using family planning methods and make pattern comparisons based on MPFS 1, MPFS 2, MPFS 3 and MPFS 4 data sets.
 
 
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Strategi kelangsungan hidup pekerja asing warga Indonesia dan implikasi sosial akibat kehadiran mereka di Sabah
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Sayed Mahadi, Syed Abdul Razak and
Hugo, Graeme and
Rudd, Dianne and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Sabah's direction focuses on the development of 3 main sectors such as agriculture, tourism and manufacturing to drive the economy. As an agro -economy -based state, the 2010 census recorded 30 per cent of the total workforce engaged in the agricultural sector. As locals are not interested in seizing employment opportunities in the 3D -based agriculture and plantation sector (Difficult, Dirty & Dangerous), job vacancies are filled mainly by Indonesian workers as shown in data obtained from Temporary Work Visit Passes (TWVP). Certainly, their presence has social implications for the state of Sabah which housed 27.7 percent of the foreign population in 2010. Therefore, a micro study needs to be conducted to understand and analyze this situation. A joint study was conducted with NPFDB, in which a total of 896 respondents consisting of Indonesian workers from the plantation, manufacturing, construction, services and informal sectors were interviewed in a survey in the Tawau Division in 2010. In addition, primary data were also collected from interviews. Conducted among legal and illegal employees as well as based on the researcher’s observations. Interviews with government officials directly involved with the management and recruitment of foreign workers were also conducted. Secondary data were obtained from various government agencies in Sabah such as the Immigration Department, Manpower Department, Statistics Department, Health Department and Education Department. This study successfully identified 5 survival strategies that are often used by Indonesian workers to ensure the success of their migration, namely family networking, choice of residence, cultural adaptation and assimilation, economic survival and involvement in social and political institutions. Of course, the implementation of this strategy has a social impact on the local people. Important findings of this study show that most Indonesian workers come to Sabah with family members. Certainly the presence of spouses and children has huge implications for social facilities especially health and education. Therefore, there must be integration between the entry of foreign workers with Sabah's development planning, especially if the dependence on foreign labor continues until Sabah achieves the status of a technology - intensive economy in the future.
 
 
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Kajian pekerja Indonesia di Bahagian Tawau, Sabah: rumusan dan cadangan hasil kajian
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ismail, Siti Norlasiah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2011
Abstract:  There are several factors for the entry of Indonesian workers to Sabah, among them is finding a job, earn a higher income as well as proximity to the country of origin. Recommendations and measures to be taken are to improve the enforcement of existing policies and laws, for example not being allowed to bring family members for unskilled and semi-skilled workers, prompt repatriation for foreign workers staying beyond the period (5 years) and employers bearing the cost of delivery come back. The next step is to curb the entry of illegal workers or immigrants, especially through illegal entrances (border control). Employers need to give priority to locals to work by giving higher wage rates or salaries. The government needs to set a minimum wage in every employment sector and plan workforce requirements updated. The government needs to encourage employers to move to mechanization and automation, especially for the plantation sector to reduce dependence on labor (unskilled and semi -skilled). Lastly, government should provide guidelines for the residence of foreign workers and facilities in the workplace as well as undergo regular monitoring by relevant agencies, and also encourage socialization with local residents. This presentation slide will describe the issues and suggestions that need to be taken as a result of the study of Indonesian workers in the Tawau Division, Sabah.
 
 
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Kajian Penilaian Modul Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial (PKRS) dalam kalangan Pelatih PLKN
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2011
Abstract:  Adolescents are the future leaders of the country and have a huge influence on the social, economic and political situation of the country. However, with the presence of various social problems that plague teenagers today, it is feared that it will affect their future which in turn is detrimental to the country. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) has taken the initiative by developing the Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action Plan (PKRS) which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under this PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) is one (1) of the agencies that implement the program. In line with the implementation of this policy, the National Service Training Council has agreed with MWFCD's proposal for PKRS to be implemented in PLKN. Following that, NPFDB has implemented one (1) Pre and Post Test Study to trainees to assess the level of knowledge and perception on reproductive and social health before and after the teaching of this PKRS module is conducted. This study also aimed to examine the sexual and reproductive behaviors of trainees. This study was conducted in 2011 in a cross section on PLKN Trainees aged 17 years and above in selected National Service Training Camps in Malaysia using independent random sampling. The total sample required was 1,038 people. The calculation of this sample size is based on an estimated 31,200 PLKN trainees who are required to attend training using Confidence Interval (95%), Margin of Error (1.5%) and Prevalence of Having Sex Out of Wedlock Among Adolescents (6.5%), (Naing L, 2006). Questionnaires were developed according to the needs and objectives of the study. One-third of the questions of this questionnaire were adapted from an international study, namely the Youth Risk Surveillance Survey, 2011 but adapted according to the objectives of the study and the culture of the community in Malaysia. The method of questionnaire administration was self administered. The scope of the questionnaire covers three (3) domains namely demographic information, knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive and social health as well as adolescent sexual behavior. A total of 1,300 pieces of assessment forms (pre and post -test) were distributed during the first teaching session of the module. Of that number, only 1,063 forms were received for analysis. After the initial analysis was conducted, it was found that there were some questions that were not fully answered by the respondents. Therefore, the data analysis will vary according to the number of participants who answered for each section. In total, a total of 1,063 respondents were successfully covered in 13 training camps nationwide. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the respondents consisted of 57.8% male adolescents and 42.2% female. The majority of respondents were aged between 17 to 19 years (95.6%) with a mean age of around 18 years. Based on the ethnic composition, 66.7% are Malays, 15.3% Chinese, 4.2% Indians and 13.8% are other ethnicities including Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputera. Most respondents have SPM education (95.6%) and are unmarried (99.6%). The overall findings of the study can be summarized that the level of respondents' knowledge on reproductive and sexual health increased significantly (p <0.05) after undergoing the PKRS module with an increase in mean knowledge score of 7.04±2.2 (before undergoing the module) to 9.17±2.1. A total of 71.1% of respondents obtained a score of 9 out of 12 items (75.0%) and above after undergoing the module. There was a significant change in attitudes (p <0.05) on reproductive and social health after undergoing PKRS training. This indirectly shows that this PKRS module seeks to help respondents change their attitudes in a more positive direction. A total of 10.4% of respondents admitted to having had sex. The mean age of having sex for the first time is about 15 years. 45.5 percent of them had sex with more than one partner. Only 2.1 percent admitted to being sexually attracted to the same sex with 18.2% of them admitting to having had same -sex sex.
 
 
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Kajian Pendapat Remaja dan Isu Sosial : mencari penyelesaian
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Introduction of Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action of Plan (PKRS) has been developed which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under the PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been given the mandate as the main agency in implementing the program. One of the programs is the Life Skills Program for teenagers which uses two (2) modules, namely the Cakna Diri Module (I’m In Control) and the Kesejahteraan Hidup Module. The purpose of this module developed is to improve adolescents' skills in aspects of reproductive health in order to avoid high-risk behaviors that lead to several problems such as premarital pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Therefore, an opinion poll was conducted to see the general view on social issues of adolescents, especially from the aspect of reproductive health and the implementation of the Life Skills Program for adolescents.
 
 
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