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Results for Division/Agency : "LPPKN - National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia: Human Reproductive Division"

Article (24)


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Differentials in sexual and reproductive health knowledge among East Malaysian adolescents
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Awang, Halimah and
Low, Wah Yun and
Wen, Tin Tong and
Lih, Yoong Tang and
Whye, Lin Cheah and
Helen, Benedict Lasimbang and
Mohd Hassan, Hamizah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2019
Abstract:  The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of East Malaysian adolescents on sexual and reproductive health issues. Data were collected in March–July 2015 from 2858 adolescents aged 13–18 years from selected East Malaysian secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Twelve items relating to sexual and reproductive health were used to measure respondents’ knowledge based on their responses ‘True’, ‘False’ or ‘Don’t know’, with the proportion of correct answers being the variable of interest. Cronbach’s alpha for the twelve items was 0.761 and the mean knowledge score was 6.8. While the majority of the respondents knew that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex with a man and that HIV and AIDS can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, knowledge about Malaysia’s abortion laws, that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex only once and that people with sexually transmitted infections may look healthy was poor. Older respondents and those from urban schools reported significantly higher knowledge than younger respondents and those from rural schools, respectively. More emphasis should be given in schools to the specific topics for which low levels of sexual and reproductive health knowledge were found, with greater attention being given to younger adolescents and those in rural areas.
 
 


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The detection of estrogen-dependent proteins in monkey oviductal fluid
Item Type: Article
Author: 
A., Paliwal and
V.P., Kamboj and
B., Malaviya and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  To detect hormone induced changes in oviductal fluid protein pattern, flushings obtained from ovariectomized untreated and estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone treated monkeys were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Superimposed densitometric scans of coomassie blue and periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) stained electrophoretic patterns revealed that estradiol treatment results in the appearance of a new protein (130 K) with maximum carbohydrate content as compared to other proteins present in the luminal milieu. The concentration of 85 and 95 K proteins also increase significantly after estradiol treatment. However, progesterone supplementation in estradiol primed monkeys results in the disappearance of 85 and 95 K proteins and decreased the 130 K glycoprotein considerably. Thus while estrogen acts as an inducer,progesterone antagonizes its action in monkey fallopian tubes and inhibits the synthesis of proteins which may have a role in early reproductive events.
 
 
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A role for cholesterol synthesized de novo by human umbilical cord
Item Type: Article
Author: 
A, Loganath and
R., Gunasegaram and
K.L., Peh and
P.C.T., Chew and
S.S., Ratnam and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  We have previously shown that the human umbilical cord in-vitro possess the ability to synthesize isocaproic acid and presumbly pregnenolone from cholesterol. Here, we examined the ability of the cord to synthesize cholesterol from acetate. Homogenates of umbilical cord (36-41 weeks gestation)obtained following spontaneous vaginal delivery from uncomplicated pregnancies (age 22-31 years) were incubated with [2-14C] acetate. Using the reverse-isotope dilution procedure, cholesterol was isolated and characterized as [14C] cholesterol acetate. Confirmation of identity of newly synthesized cholesterol was obtained after recrystallisation with added non-radioactive cholesterol acetate as standard. The rate of 14C incorporation is small but definite. The results indicate that the homogenates of human term umbilical cord contain the enzymes responsible for the conversion of [2-14C] acetate to [14C] cholesterol. It is suggested that cholesterol synthesized de novo can serve as a percursor for progesterone synthesis in-vivo.
 
 
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Coagulation profile in women on low-dose oral contraceptive pills
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Ishak, Roshidah and
Hassan, Khalid and
Yusof, Baharum and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  A cross-sectional study looking at the coagulation system was carried out involving 175 women attending the National Population and Family Development Board's Clinic at the Maternity Clinic, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Study subjects comprise of 50 combined low-dose estrogen/progesterone oral contraceptive (OC) pill users and 75 non-OC users, acting as controls. The subjects were on the pill for a period of one year or more. There were significant shortening of the prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) in the OC group as compared to the control group. However, the activities of factors II, V and VII assayed were not significantly different between the two groups, suggesting that the changes in the PT and PTT were not significant clinically. The effect of long term usage of combined low-dose OC pills does not seem to indicate changes in the coagulation profile of the women in our study.
 
 
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Clinical evaluation of Buserelin, a GnRH analogue in the management of moderate to severe pelvic endometriosis
Item Type: Article
Author: 
M.T.M., Ismail and
H.A., Wadood and
M., Azhar and
Arshat, Hamid and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  A local study, a part of a multinasional and multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of Buserelin was carried out for the treatment of pelvic endometriosis using a standard protocol. 20 women diagnosed to have moderate to severe endometriosis by laparoscopy were recruited. The women were given 900 micrograms Buserelin acetate daily by intranasal spray for a fixed period of 6 months. Baseline hormonal and biochemical parameters were taken prior to treatment and the parameters were repeated during each follow-up at weekly and monthly intervals. In addition, changes in symptoms were monitored. A second look laparoscopy was performed at completion of therapy and patients were followed up for a further 6 months. There was 100 percent suppression of oestradiol levels during the 6 months treatment period. An improvement of implants according to AFS classification occured in all patients. One patient discontinued because of side effects. Restoration of cycles after completion of therapy occured within 7 weeks. There were 7 pregnancies (64%) in the first 6 months after treatment for those wanting pregnancies. During therapy, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain and dyspareunia improved considerably. Buserelin was proven to be effective in the management of pelvic endometriosis and is well tolerated and safe.
 
 
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In vitro maturation of immature human oocytes in culture medium containing follicular fluid
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Ali, Jaffar and
A.J., Halim and
Arshat, Hamid and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/06/1987
Abstract:  In clinical IVF programs often immature oocytes are retrieved. Under such circumstances, numerous workers have advocated the procedure of pre-incubation in insemination medium for 12-36 hours, prior to insemination to induce maturation. We describe here the supplementation of follicular fluid in insemination medium to induce maturation of immature oocytes. The culture characteristics of the insemination medium containing follicular fluid appears to be better than the insemination medium without follicular fluid. Previous reports suggest the presence of a meiosis-inducing substance in follicular fluid which could trigger the resumption of meiosis and hence contribute to oocyte maturation. Other factors in follicular fluids which are yet to be elucidated, may also contribute to oocyte maturation. It is concluded that superior culture characteristics can be obtained if immature oocytes are preincubated for 16-36 hours in insemination medium containing 50% follicular fluid.
 
 
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Paramedic insertion of intrauterine device in a Malaysian family planning clinic
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Kwa, Siew Kim and
Arshat, Hamid and
AbdulJalil, Abdul Halim and
Ang, Eng Suan and
Suhaimi, Ayub and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/06/1987
Abstract:  A retrospective study was carried out in a Malaysian urban family planning clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of the paramedic in intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD)insertion. Seventy-nine multiload Cu 250 insertions by trained senior nurse in 1983 were measured against 369 insertions by doctors. Follow-up was done by nurses. At the cut-off date on 31st October 1985, the case records were examined. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in termination percentage due to IUD complications. The nurse's group had a significantly higher percentage of failure to follow-up and also removal for personal reasons. No significant difference between the 2 groups was shown for termination due to accidental pregnancy, bleeding and pain, expulsion and pelvic infections. Removal of IUD to plan for pregnancy is high in both groups. The results show that the trained paramedic can be just as effective as doctors for IUD insertion.
 
 
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A prospective study of the acceptability of today vaginal contraceptive sponge among Malaysian women
Item Type: Article
Author: 
M.T.M., Ismail and
A.J., Halim and
Arshat, Hamid and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/06/1987
Abstract:  Fifty volunteers were selected in a two month prospective study to evaluate the acceptability of the Today vaginal sponge contraceptive among Malaysian women. One participant developed allergic reaction to the sponge and was taken off at an early stage of the study. Fourty- nine participants completed one month follow-up.Thirteen subjects discontinued for various reasons which are related and not related to the sponge. The remaining 36 participants completed the study. Few side effects were observed among the sponge users who completed the trial. One subject complained that the Loop of the sponge hurt her husband's penis. Most of the women who are on the sponges claimed that sexual intercourse is no longer messy. Four subjects claimed that the sponges pontentiated sexual feeling to their male partners. The sponge is generally accepted by the study group, which suggest that the general impression 'Asian Women abhor any form of vaginal contraception' is not totally correct. It is suggested that the contraceptive efficacy of the sponge be evaluated among our women in the future.
 
 
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Book (5)




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Family education@LPPKN = Pendidikan kekeluargaan@LPPKN
Item Type: Book
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2013
Abstract:  The National Population and Family Board (NPFDB), agency under the Ministry of Women Family and Community Development which was initially known as the National Family Planning Board (NFPB) was established in 1966 as a statutory body. Its main objective was to implement the National Family Planning Programme but its scope has now been expanded to Population, Family Development and Reproductive Health which is in line with 1984 Amendments Act. The Malaysian family today is facing numerous challenges due to rapid socio-economic development and globalization. New challenges have emerged in the social and economic arena, which have had an impact on Malaysian families. Among the challenges experienced by the family institution are changing family structure and dynamics, balancing family and career, fulfilling economic needs parenting of young children and adolecents as well as weakening marital and family relationships. Parallel with the Government's emphasis on strengthening the family institution, the NPFDB has developed and implemented a wide range of family development programmes encompassing advocacy activities and promotion, training and education, services, research and development (R&D) as well as policy formulation. In December 2010, the Government approved the National Family Policy and its Plan of Action, thus mainstreaming the family perspective in all socio-economic planning and development.
 
 
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Conference or Workshop Item (6)




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Youth in Malaysia: the bare truth about teen and homosexual tendency
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ahmad, Norliza and
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Paul, Juliana and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2012
Abstract:  Sexuality is a result of the interplay of biological, psychological, socio-economic, cultural, ethics and religious/spiritual factors. Youth sexuality, particularly homosexuality has always been a matter of concern to many parties. Furthermore, the issue of homosexuality has already caused much controversy in Malaysia recently. This study aims to explore the homosexual tendency among Malaysian youths. Methods a nationwide cross sectional study was done using secondary data from Adolescent Health Screening Forms (BSSK/R/1/2008). Data was obtained from randomly selected participants of a national youth programme aged between 18-25 years and was analyzed using SPSS. Results A total of 22,750 youth participated with almost equal ratio by sex. Mean age was 19.0 years old. This study revealed that the homosexual tendency was more common amongst male youths (4.1%), 21-24 years old (5.5%) and no formal education (6.1%). There is a relationship between homosexual tendency and sex, ethnicity and educational attainment. Homosexual tendency was found to be significantly associated with risky behavior, abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse and family connectedness. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression found that homosexual tendency was two times higher among abused youth followed by youth with anti-social (OR=1.9), risky behavior (OR=1.6), lack of family connectedness (OR=1.7), less religious (OR=1.4) while controlling for age, ethnicity and education level. Conclusion, the prevalence of homosexual tendency among youths in Malaysia is an alarming issue and many cases are still under-reported. Misunderstanding and a lack of information on sexual diversity have caused a concern for many, as there is a tendency for judgments, stereotypes, discrimination and prejudice towards homosexuality in society. Instead of treating it as a disease, ways and measures of educating youths need to be explored.
 
 
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Kajian kesihatan reproduktif & seksual remaja
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Ahmad, Noor Ani and
Aris, Tahir and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The increase in reproductive and social health issues among adolescents has been hotly debated both nationally and internationally. Every day, Malaysians are presented with news on adolescent misconduct, especially those involving cases of abortion and out -of -wedlock pregnancies. Therefore, a specific study to look at the level of reproductive and sexual health of adolescents and the factors that influence it was conducted based on the results of the national level of adolescent health research. Methodology this cross -sectional study was conducted in 2010 using secondary data from the Adolescent Health Screening Form (BSSK/R/1/2008) which was filled by trainees of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) in 80 NSTP camps throughout the country. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi -square test and logistic regression using SPSS software. The parameters studied included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity and level of education) and social characteristics (risky behavior, history of abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse, religion, and family relationships). While there are nine (9) SRH issues that were studied, namely masturbation, watching pornography, extramarital sex, multi -partner sex, STIs, homosexual tendencies, homosexual relationships, pregnancy and abortion. Results A total of 23,231 data were analyzed. Of these, a total of 22,750 respondents aged 18-24 years were screened for the purpose of study analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the issue of watching and reading pornographic material among adolescents recorded the highest percentage (39.5%) followed by masturbation (28.5%) and extramarital sex (6.5%). All socio -demographic factors studied had a significant relationship with extramarital sex, homosexual predisposition and abortion (p <0.05). Risk factors for extramarital sex are the age group of 20-24 years (OR = 2.710, SK95% 1.967, 3.759), risky behavior (OR = 30.495 SK95% 19.683, 47.427), involvement in substance abuse (OR = 12.33 SK95% 8,051, 18,891), anti-social (OR = 2,615 SK95% 2,206, 3,100) and ever abused (OR = 1,726 SK95% 1,389, 2,145). While the appreciation of religion is a protective factor for adolescents where the study found that adolescents who appreciate religion are twice as likely to have sex compared to adolescents who do not appreciate religion. There is no evidence to suggest that familial relationship variables influence adolescents to have sex. Conclusion overall it can be concluded that adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues need to be given serious attention. This is because the results of the study show that the trend of extramarital sex among adolescents which is a key indicator of the level of adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues has increased from 2.2% in 2004 (MPFS-4) to 6.5% in 2010. Therefore, multisectoral cooperation programs are needed to address this issue. The implementation of intervention programs should also be focused on high-risk adolescents such as having risky behaviors, anti-social and involved in cases of substance abuse. The planning and preparation of the program must also take into account the concepts and teachings of religion practiced in Malaysia through an approach that can be accepted by adolescents. Further studies need to be conducted more extensively taking into account other factors that have yet to be explored.
 
 
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Kontraseptif kecemasan: kesedaran dan penggunaannya
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Shekh Abdullah, Faezah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Emergency contraceptive (EC) is one of the methods of contraception used after unprotected sex. With proper use, this method of emergency contraception can help reduce the problems of unplanned or unwanted pregnancies that have been frequent in recent times. The objective of this study was to identify women’s awareness of emergency contraceptive methods and their level of use. The research method involved the distribution of questionnaires to 1000 women, aged 15 to 49 years, who attended programs organized by NPFDB. Data collection and analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5 software. The chi -square test was used to study the relationship between the sociodemographics of the respondents and the variables studied. The coverage of the study consisted of 84% Malay women, and was followed by Indians (9%) and Chinese (6%). The majority of respondents (43%) were in the range of 25 to 34 years, with a mean age of 33 years. Contraceptive use among respondents was found to be 26.3%, of which 98% were married women. The study found that women’s awareness of EC and its level of use was low, being only 29% and 3.9%, respectively. The chi -square test results showed that the level of awareness of EC increased with age (p <0.05). In addition, more highly educated women were found to have heard of EC (p <0.05) compared to low levels. Most EC users are from the married group. Nearly 70% of women who are using contraceptives are found to have used EC. Among women who have never used EC, only 21% are interested in using it in the future. However, the majority (70%) support this service provided at NPFDB. The lack of exposure on EC results in the number of women interested in using it being low. Therefore, NPFDB and related parties need to enhance promotional activities, advocacy and learning of emergency contraceptive methods, in addition to other methods, so that the community knows about it and can use it during emergencies.
 
 
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Module (8)




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Modul Cakna Diri Lelaki Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduksi dan Seksual Untuk Remaja Lelaki Berumur 16-24 Tahun
Item Type: Module
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2018
Abstract:  The Sexual and Reproductive Health Module for boys and young men age 16 to 24 years was developed to address sexual and reproductive health as well as social issues for boys and young men. It is also aim to create awareness on the importance of reproductive health and social education as well as gender equality for future well-being. This module is divided into two (2) main target groups i.e. general adolescents (Module A) and most-at-risk adolescents (Module B). The main components of Module A includes topics on adolescent growth, developmental, health, psychosocial - 3R (Respect, Relationship and Responsibility), laws and regulations, drugs and substance abuse. Module B covers topics on risky social behaviors, risky sexual behaviors and teen pregnancy. This module is developed as an interactive form using various learning methods such as role play, sketches, group work and discussions to attract participation of boys and young men.
 
 
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KASIH Package module
Item Type: Module
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2000
Abstract:  The KASIH package consists of five key modules based on the family life cycle which is Module On Preparation For Marriage - (Bahtera Kasih) - Focuses on enhancing knowledge and skills on marriage preparation and developing a strong foundation for marriages, Module On Fatherhood - (Pancaran Kasih) - Focuses on sharpening the parenting skills of fathers in shaping their children's development, Module On Parenting of Young Children - (Belaian Kasih) - Equips parents with techniques and skills for parenting their young children, Module On Parenting Adolescents - (Mutiara Kasih) - Assists parents to develop effective communication and relationship skills in guiding their adolescent children to be resilient in facing challenges and Module On Adolescent Development - (Permata Kasih) - Adolescent are guided to develop positive values such as being caring and sensitive, loving, responsible and having good personalities in line with the family, society and country's aspiration.
 
 

Report (7)




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Statistik data perkhidmatan perancang keluarga LPPKN tahun 2015-2019
Item Type: Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2022
Abstract:  National Population and Family Development Board Malaysia (NPFDB) have prepared a statistic report on family planning services at the NPFDB level according to the number of new recipients, type of contraceptive, state, age group, ethnicity, strata and employment status for 2015 to 2019. This report only consist new recipients, which is new clients who have not registered with any of family planning agency such as NPFDB, Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) and Federation of Reproductive Health Associations Malaysia (FRHAM). The breakdown of statistic report by type of contraceptive have included implant, injection, condom, pill, intrauterine device and non-modern methods. Meanwhile, the breakdown of family planning data by age have covered the range of 15 years to 49 years. The breakdown of data by ethnicity also have included Malay, Chinese, Indian, other bumiputera and other ethnicities. These statistic data were also have provided by strata (urban and rural), employment status (employed and unemployed) and education breakdown including college/ university, secondary school, primary school and non formal education.
 
 
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Research Report (13)




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Enhancing Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2023
Abstract:  Polycystic ovary syndrome or known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder and one of the main causes of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age, which is 15 to 49 years (Balen et al., 2016). The main characteristics of women with PCOS are ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries (Balen and Michelmore., 2002). This syndrome is associated with metabolic syndromes such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 1 (Barthemess and Naz., 2014) and arteriosclerosis (Orio et al., 2004). The general objective of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics, clinical and medical history, of PCOS sufferers as well as appropriate treatment methods among clients seeking fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. This study is an experimental, case control study involving female clients who come to seek fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. The chosen location is LPPKN Headquarters, Kuala Lumpur. Every female client who attends needs to meet the patient selection criteria, namely a Malaysian couple, trying to conceive for more than a year and aged between 25 to 38 years old. Every patient who faces subfertility problem is divided into two groups, namely PCOS and no PCOS. Patients who are eligible and agree to participate in the study have gone through at least five (5) series of appointments with medical officers and nurses. A total of 167 patients participated in this study with an average age of 30 years.
 
 
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Executive Summary: youth intervention study: best practices of youth intervention programmes in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2020
Abstract:  In the decades, Malaysia has undergone rapid economic, social and cultural changes which impacted not only the daily lives of its people but also their worldview and values. This is particularly so for young people, as excessive exposure to information from the social media, internet and pornography had inevitably influence their lifestyle and behaviour. The socio-cultural changes are likely associated with an increased rates of non-marital sexual activity, increased rates of sex partner change and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2005, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through NPFDB introduced the PEKERTI Programme to be implemented at KafeTEEN adolescents centres. The programme provides reproductive health services, counseling services and education and skill building to promote a healthy life and inculcate positive attitudes and moral values among young people.
 
 
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Situational analysis on family planning and reproductive health education in Malaysia and other selected Muslim countries Part I: needs analysis on family planning policy Part II: reproductive health education: policy and plan of action
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2020
Abstract:  This study is an initiative by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) through the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), who has been a strategic partner of NPFDB since the 1990s in the Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) programmes. This study was conducted at where there are rapid changes in the population dynamics and demographic trends together with the advancement in human capacity development and new communication technologies. It is an effort that enables the nation to achieve its commitment locally towards Malaysia’s Shared Prosperity Vision 2030 agenda and internationally, such as the ICPD Plan of Action. The objective of the study is to identify the best practices of reproductive and sexual health (SRH) programs including family planning and reproductive and sexual health education (SRHE) among selected Islamic countries that practice sunni sects to provide direction to Malaysia. Five (5) countries were selected for the purpose of comparison with Malaysia are Turkey, Egypt, Morocco and Bangladesh. The report of this study proposes several strategies and improvements as a result of a gap analysis with other Muslim countries that can help strengthen the strategy and implementation of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health programmes to improve reproductive health indicators such as Maternal Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality Rate and Age Specific Fertility Rate, as well as reducing the number of cases of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual abuse and sexual crimes.
 
 
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Kajian Pengesanan Mikrodelesi Kromosom Y dalam kalangan klien Infertiliti di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  The study "Microdelesi of Y Chromosome among NPFDB Infertility Clients" conducted by the Biomedical Unit, NFPDB is to identify infertility factors from a genetic aspect. Study samples were obtained from infertility patients referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory, NPFDB from 2003 to 2010. A total of 100 blood samples of clients diagnosed as azoospermia (48), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (24), oligozoospermia (15), severe oligozoospermia (6), Klinefelter Syndrome (3) and idiopathy (4) were performed Chromosome Analysis Tests to identify any abnormalities of the number and structure on the chromosome and subsequently Molecular Testing is performed to detect the microdeletion of the Y chromosome. Majority of ethnic groups involved in the study are Malays, which is 74 people (74%) followed by Chinese; nine (9) people (9%), Indians; seven (7) people (7%) and other ethnicities from Sabah and Sarawak as many as 10 people (10%) in the age range of 23 to 46 years.The chromosome analysis test results for the 100 samples were normal which is, 46, XY, no abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes were found. Results was found that 15 samples (15%) underwent Y chromosome microdeletion at the AZF locus in molecular test. From 15 samples, 10 samples were azoospermia, three (3) severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia samples and two (2) oligozoospermia samples. Each sample experienced deletion at different locus and there were samples that experienced multiple deletion which involved deletion of more than one factor locus (AZF).The most common AZF factors found to experience deletion were AZFc (73.33%) followed by AZFb (53.33%), AZFd (40%) and AZFa (13.33%). In conclusion, it was found that genetic factors are one of the causes of infertility problems among clients came for subfertility treatment. Looking at the importance of undergoing genetic screening testing at an early stage, it is recommended that this test be tested for men diagnosed with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia at the Subfertility Clinic, NPFDB. The information obtained has prognostic value and influences the medical therapy chosen to assist in the clinical management of the client and his descendant in the future.
 
 
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Effects of socio-demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors on semen quality of men attending the sub fertility clinic in National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Couples are considered infertile if they are unable to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sex. The impact of lifestyle and environment on human fertility may vary depending on aetiology, demographic characteristics, genetic variation and other factors. As used by previous researchers, semen parameters were used to measure male infertility. Therefore, a decrease in semen quality is considered as a major factor in male infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen_quality). Previous studies (Kidd et al.2001,Eskenazi et al.2003, de La Rochebrochard and Thonneau 2003) have found that older men tend to have lower semen quality than younger ones. Testicular hyperthermia (elevated temperature) also has been known to affect male fertility. Men who like taking hot baths or sit in a sedentary position for a long time are at risk of having infertility. The objectives of this study are to identify the relationship between socio-demographic profile, lifestyle and environmental factors and semen quality, and to identify risk factors of poor semen quality among men attending the National Population and Family Development Board's (NPFDB) Subfertility Clinic. This study was done in Andrology Laboratory, NPFDB. Five hundred men from couples having their first infertility consultation between September 2010 abd June 2011 were recruited. Each patient was required to register, deposit semen and fill in the quesstionnaire. Sperm concentration, morphology and motility from semen analysis were used to study the relationship between semen quality and independent variables. Reference limits used were 15 cells x 10'6/ml, 4% and 40 %, respectively (World Health Organization, 2010). For statistical analysis, descriptive statistic, t test and ANOVA were used; 0.05 alpha value was chosen. Results showed that one-third of the study population were between 26 to 30 years of age and another one third were aged between 31 to 35 years old; mean age was 33.2. majority were Malays (71.2%), resided in Selangor (64.3%) and professionals (41.6%). Semen quality showed a negative relationship (p<0.05) with age. Meanwhile, sperm motility varied significantly for different ethnic group. Chinese (57.75%) had the highest motile-sperm compared to Malays (53.44%) and Indians (46.60%). Among lifestyles variables, frequency of sexual intercourse had a posive relationship (p<0.05) with sperm motility, whilst sedentary position had negative relationship (p<0.05) with the latter. Regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors of poor semen quality. This study found that men above 30 years old were two times more likely to have low sperm motility than men in the twenties. Moreover, less frequent sexual activity between couples was more likely (p<0.05) to have abnormal sperm compared to those who had sexual intercourse more frequently. In conclusion, this study suggested that age over 30 years and infrequent sexual activity were the risk factors to lower semen quality. Even though not regarded as a risk factor, sedentary work position had a negative impact on sperm motility. These factors may affect male fertility and cause difficulty in conception. Public awareness through advocacy programs and talks on infertility and its risk factors should be carried out regularly. Public education should be carried out to advice men to practice a healthy lifestyle and work life balance. This study has shown encouraging results, and should be replicated in the general population in Malaysia
 
 
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Kajian perbandingan penggunaan tiga jenis rawatan hormon FSH dalam kalangan pesakit subfertiliti yang menjalani prosedur permanian beradas di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Since 1979, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been providing subfertility management services to the public especially middle-income group. In line with the rapid pace of the latest technology and research developments, there are various types of fertility drugs in the form of injections which had been used in subfertility treatment. The main function of this injection is to mature the follicles where the main hormone contained in this injection is the follicle stimulating hormone (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, FSH). In general, there are three types of FSH injections, which is a recombinant FSH (rFSH) that have 100 percent synthetic hormone, urinary FSH (uFSH) that derived from menopausal urine and highly purified urinary FSH (hp-uFSH) that also derived from menopausal urine but more pure state than uFSH. All three hormones have FSH’s activities but uFSH and hp-uFSH also have Luteinizing Hormone’s activity (LH). Thus, NPFDB has taken initiative to conduct a comparative study on the use of three types of FSH hormone treatment, namely Gonal F (rFSH), Folliova (uFSH) and Menopur (hp-uFSH), among subfertilitie’s patient who’s undergoing Intrauterine Insemination Technique (IUI). Among others, the three types of hormones were studied in terms of effevtivenee and cost burden. The study sample was from patients with unknown cause of subfertilitie’s problem and they visit NPFDB Subfertilitie’s Clinic, Headquarters, from June 2010 to May 2012. The sampling method was random. The patient and researcher do not know the treatment regimen to be initiated until a closed sample containing the treatment regimen code number is opened by the patient before starting treatment. Data were collected, recorded and anlyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Although originally a total of 90 female patients were targeted to be recruited into this study. 30 patients for each type of FSH hormone, but at the end of the study only 39 patients met all eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in this study. The result showed that average of the patients was 28.3 years and the majority were ethnic Malays (76.9%). Most of the patients had a household income between RM 5,000.00 and RM 10,000.00 (51.4%). The percentage of patients requiring more than three injections to procedure mature follicles was lowest for Folliova (41.7%), compared with Menopur (50.0%) and Gonal F (55.6%). Similarly in terms of the number of follicles produced, the Folliova regime (58.3%) produced more follicles (more than three follicles) than other regimes. A total of 16.7 percent of patients who took Menopur injections were confirmed pregnant, while no pregnany occurred among patients who took Folliova and Gonal F. In terms of cost, at the time of this study, the price of three 75IU injections was RM 334.20 for Gonal F, RM 187.20 for Folliova and RM 271.20 for Menopur. In conclusion, this study shows that, hp-uFSH (Menopur) gives the highest pregnancy rate compared to Gonal F and Folliova. Furthemore, the price of Menopur is moderate (affordable) for patients. Therefore, highly purified urinary FSH is a good gonadotropin choice for couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing an IUI procedure and it may be the main choice for patients who need a combination fertility pill stimulation regimen and gonadotropin injections. As a suggestion, such a study should be conducted with a larger sample size to obtain more significant results and be representative of actual population.
 
 
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Faktor risiko dan pelindung terhadap kesihatan seksual dan reproduktif remaja di Semenanjung Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  In Malaysia, statistics from the National Registration Department (NRD) show that a total of 214,033 illegitimate children were born from 2004 to 2009. While statistics from the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) show that 596 cases of baby abandonment were reported from 2005 to 2013. For the total number of rape crimes in among teenagers under the age of 18, PDRM statistics show an increase from 1,710 cases in 2006 to 2,658 cases in 2013. The increase in such cases shows that today's teenagers face the problem of moral decay and fragility of identity which is a concern of Malaysian society. Accordingly, knowledge of sexual and reproductive health can help adolescents avoid negative symptoms such as cases of extramarital pregnancies and social symptoms related to sexuality. The objective of this study was to (i). to study the prevalence of unhealthy sexual behavior among adolescents aged 13-24 years in peninsular Malaysia; (ii). identify risk factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH); and (iii). identify protective factors related to ASRH. This study was implemented using two (2) main approaches, namely quantitative and qualitative methods. The design of the quantitative study was successfully conducted on 5,088 adolescents aged 13 to 24 years. The qualitative study involved a total of eight (8) Focus Group Discussions (FGD) conducted in eight (8) selected detention centers and shelter hostels located in several states in Peninsular Malaysia.
 
 
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Kajian Penilaian Modul Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial (PKRS) dalam kalangan Pelatih PLKN
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2011
Abstract:  Adolescents are the future leaders of the country and have a huge influence on the social, economic and political situation of the country. However, with the presence of various social problems that plague teenagers today, it is feared that it will affect their future which in turn is detrimental to the country. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) has taken the initiative by developing the Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action Plan (PKRS) which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under this PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) is one (1) of the agencies that implement the program. In line with the implementation of this policy, the National Service Training Council has agreed with MWFCD's proposal for PKRS to be implemented in PLKN. Following that, NPFDB has implemented one (1) Pre and Post Test Study to trainees to assess the level of knowledge and perception on reproductive and social health before and after the teaching of this PKRS module is conducted. This study also aimed to examine the sexual and reproductive behaviors of trainees. This study was conducted in 2011 in a cross section on PLKN Trainees aged 17 years and above in selected National Service Training Camps in Malaysia using independent random sampling. The total sample required was 1,038 people. The calculation of this sample size is based on an estimated 31,200 PLKN trainees who are required to attend training using Confidence Interval (95%), Margin of Error (1.5%) and Prevalence of Having Sex Out of Wedlock Among Adolescents (6.5%), (Naing L, 2006). Questionnaires were developed according to the needs and objectives of the study. One-third of the questions of this questionnaire were adapted from an international study, namely the Youth Risk Surveillance Survey, 2011 but adapted according to the objectives of the study and the culture of the community in Malaysia. The method of questionnaire administration was self administered. The scope of the questionnaire covers three (3) domains namely demographic information, knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive and social health as well as adolescent sexual behavior. A total of 1,300 pieces of assessment forms (pre and post -test) were distributed during the first teaching session of the module. Of that number, only 1,063 forms were received for analysis. After the initial analysis was conducted, it was found that there were some questions that were not fully answered by the respondents. Therefore, the data analysis will vary according to the number of participants who answered for each section. In total, a total of 1,063 respondents were successfully covered in 13 training camps nationwide. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the respondents consisted of 57.8% male adolescents and 42.2% female. The majority of respondents were aged between 17 to 19 years (95.6%) with a mean age of around 18 years. Based on the ethnic composition, 66.7% are Malays, 15.3% Chinese, 4.2% Indians and 13.8% are other ethnicities including Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputera. Most respondents have SPM education (95.6%) and are unmarried (99.6%). The overall findings of the study can be summarized that the level of respondents' knowledge on reproductive and sexual health increased significantly (p <0.05) after undergoing the PKRS module with an increase in mean knowledge score of 7.04±2.2 (before undergoing the module) to 9.17±2.1. A total of 71.1% of respondents obtained a score of 9 out of 12 items (75.0%) and above after undergoing the module. There was a significant change in attitudes (p <0.05) on reproductive and social health after undergoing PKRS training. This indirectly shows that this PKRS module seeks to help respondents change their attitudes in a more positive direction. A total of 10.4% of respondents admitted to having had sex. The mean age of having sex for the first time is about 15 years. 45.5 percent of them had sex with more than one partner. Only 2.1 percent admitted to being sexually attracted to the same sex with 18.2% of them admitting to having had same -sex sex.
 
 


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Kajian faktor-faktor penghalang wanita berkahwin menjalani ujian pap smear
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Cervical cancer is the second most dangerous threat to women that not only lead to a loss of pregnancy, but can even be life threatening. 12.9 percent of all cancer deaths among women are also due to this cancer. Unfortunately, 80% of women who are first diagnosed with cervical cancer are already at serious stage and cannot be treated properly even though cervical cancer screening programs such as Pap Smear have existed since 1943. Statistics released by the Ministry of Health Malaysia through the 2003 National Cancer Registry Report showed, even after the implementation of the Pap Smear program, the incidence rate of cervical cancer has increased where in 1990 the incidence rate was 13.3 per 100,000 women compared to 19.7 per 100,000 women in 2003. This illustrates that the Pap Smear program in Malaysia is not comprehensive and not practiced by those who need it which is women who have started sexual activity. Therefore, the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) has conducted a study in relation to cervical cancer screening or Pap Smear test. This study aimed to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history, women’s awareness on pap screening tests, women’s risk perceptions of cervical cancer, women’s attitudes towards the importance of Pap Smear testing and prevalence of Pap Smear screening test practice. This cross -sectional study was conducted in the Klang Valley, Melaka, Perak and Terengganu using purposive sampling. The total sample was 1000 people. The study population consisted of once married women aged between 20-65 years. This includes married women, widows and widowers. The conditions for rejecting the sample are ineligible women, such as unmarried women, non-Malaysian citizens and women who have had cervical cancer. The collection of research data is through interviews based on the text of the questionnaire provided. Respondents will be interviewed by interviewers who have been trained to obtain accurate information. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi-square test and t test. Therefore, based on the analysis that has been conducted, the prevalence of female Pap Smear test is 55.2 percent. Respondents showed a positive attitude when asked about the importance of Pap Smear test compared to other examinations, many of whom thought that this test was very important (92.7 percent). Only 4.2 percent considered the Pap Smear test not important and there were a few who could not provide certainty about its importance (3.1 percent). Not many can measure the risk they are facing to get cervical cancer as 377 (41.5 percent) people are unaware of the cancer risk they are facing. However, there were a total of 276 (30.4 percent) women who were confident that they were not at risk at all. Only 7.7 percent received a high risk of this cancer, moderate risk (5.6 percent) and low risk (14.9 percent).
 
 
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A Study on health status of youth in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  This study analyzed health screening of 22,840 youths, who were distributed equally by ethnicity and camp sessions. Based on the analysis, 21.6% of youths were underweight, 18.1% pre-obese and 10.3% obese, with 0.3% perceived having body image disorders. With regards to sexual and reproductive health issues, 39.6% admitted viewing pornographic materials, 28.5% practiced masturbation, 6.5% engaged in premarital sexual relationships, 5.5% had multiple partners and 1.6% had been involved in homosexual relationships. History of abortion was discovered by 0.5% of the respondents. Almost a quarter of the youths were smokers, while 8.7% had consumed alcohol and 1.4% admitted taking drugs. The study also revealed that 6.2% of respondents reported to have past involvement in bully and 14.1% in fight. About 7.1% of the respondents revealed they had been physically abused while 1.2% of them had been sexually abused. Mental health problems were noted in 27.5% of the youths, with depression in 9.8% of the youths, anxiety in 20.7% and suicidal ideation in 11.8%. Psycho-social problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior, physical/sexual abuse and mental health problems among youth are interrelated with common risk and protective factors. Management of psycho-social problems in youths should be holistic; looking into risk and protective factors. Programs and interventions should focus on strengthening of protective factors among youth such as family connectedness and religiosity.
 
 
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Kajian Pendapat Remaja dan Isu Sosial : mencari penyelesaian
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Introduction of Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action of Plan (PKRS) has been developed which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under the PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been given the mandate as the main agency in implementing the program. One of the programs is the Life Skills Program for teenagers which uses two (2) modules, namely the Cakna Diri Module (I’m In Control) and the Kesejahteraan Hidup Module. The purpose of this module developed is to improve adolescents' skills in aspects of reproductive health in order to avoid high-risk behaviors that lead to several problems such as premarital pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Therefore, an opinion poll was conducted to see the general view on social issues of adolescents, especially from the aspect of reproductive health and the implementation of the Life Skills Program for adolescents.
 
 


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Tingkah laku seks di kalangan warga 45 tahun dan ke atas
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2006
Abstract:  An opinion survey on 'Sexual Behavior Among Citizens 45 Years and Above' which was first conducted by the Human Reproduction Division (BRM) was conducted in the Klang Valley area from February to June 2003. The 'Convenience Sampling' sampling method was used where respondents who meet certain criteria fill in the questionnaire themselves. A total of 473 respondents consisting of 50.1% Malays, Indians (26.6%) and Chinese (23.3%) where men (53.5%) outnumber than women (46.5%). The majority of respondents comprised the age group of 50-59 years (41.25%). From the 220 female respondents, only 7.3% took hormone replacement therapy. The results of the study found that the importance and satisfaction of sex decreases with age where it is more pronounced among women than men. The frequency of sexual intercourse is performed in the range of 4-8 times a month (46.3%). Although only 16.7% of respondents had sex-related problems, 70.9% of them did not know the source of help and treatment for their problems. Among those who received treatment, 56.4% chose to seek modern treatment. 55.7% of respondents with sexual problems have at least one chronic disease. A total of 85.6% disagreed and looked for another partner as a way out of sex -related problems. Expectations for better sex in the future are still high at 69.1%. In conclusion, for middle-aged and above despite the declining importance of sexual intercourse, their right to access to knowledge and services related to sexual problems needs to be addressed immediately, especially by medical practitioners, especially the Human Reproduction Division and LPPKN in general. A systematic and ‘gender-sensitive’ approach can help overcome the problem of family institutional breakdown and problems related to incest.
 
 
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