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Results for Year : "2012"

Conference or Workshop Item (40)




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Youth in Malaysia: the bare truth about teen and homosexual tendency
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ahmad, Norliza and
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Paul, Juliana and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2012
Abstract:  Sexuality is a result of the interplay of biological, psychological, socio-economic, cultural, ethics and religious/spiritual factors. Youth sexuality, particularly homosexuality has always been a matter of concern to many parties. Furthermore, the issue of homosexuality has already caused much controversy in Malaysia recently. This study aims to explore the homosexual tendency among Malaysian youths. Methods a nationwide cross sectional study was done using secondary data from Adolescent Health Screening Forms (BSSK/R/1/2008). Data was obtained from randomly selected participants of a national youth programme aged between 18-25 years and was analyzed using SPSS. Results A total of 22,750 youth participated with almost equal ratio by sex. Mean age was 19.0 years old. This study revealed that the homosexual tendency was more common amongst male youths (4.1%), 21-24 years old (5.5%) and no formal education (6.1%). There is a relationship between homosexual tendency and sex, ethnicity and educational attainment. Homosexual tendency was found to be significantly associated with risky behavior, abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse and family connectedness. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression found that homosexual tendency was two times higher among abused youth followed by youth with anti-social (OR=1.9), risky behavior (OR=1.6), lack of family connectedness (OR=1.7), less religious (OR=1.4) while controlling for age, ethnicity and education level. Conclusion, the prevalence of homosexual tendency among youths in Malaysia is an alarming issue and many cases are still under-reported. Misunderstanding and a lack of information on sexual diversity have caused a concern for many, as there is a tendency for judgments, stereotypes, discrimination and prejudice towards homosexuality in society. Instead of treating it as a disease, ways and measures of educating youths need to be explored.
 
 
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Community based program in Ethiopia: from CBD to massive, state-run health extension program
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Haile, Genet Mengistu and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) pioneered a Community-based FP Distribution [CBD] program in Ethiopia in 1991. The CBD agents were selected by the community members through prior set selection criteria including interest and willingness to volunteer for community work and sufficient knowledge about the socio-economic and cultural context of the community. The CBD program was very widely replicated by many other institutions as a low cost, effective strategy to increase access to modern contraceptive services in under-served communities. Considering the challenges related to distance and access to fixed health facilities among women with high unmet needs and the lessons drawn from project based success stories of the CBD programs, the government of Ethiopia initiated the Health Extension Program (HEP) in 2003 to accelerate utilization of primary health care services in rural communities. The HEP is implemented by trained health extension workers or practitioners at the community level with strong focus on health promotion and disease prevention and empowering community members to make decisions and take actions on their own health. The Health Extension Workers (HEW) were recruited from the community among those who completed high school and trained for one year. Currently, two female HEWs are assigned at each kebele (the lowest administrative unit) and to implement a package of 16 primary health care services including FP and maternal health. A total of about 35,000 rural HEWs and 4,800 urban Health Extension Professionals [Graduate Nurses] are deployed by MoH as government employees throughout the country. The program has created a better opportunity, particularly for rural women and young people to access health services including FP/RH.
 
 
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Population ageing and social protection in Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Abd. Samad, Suhaimi and
Awang, Halimah and
Mansor, Norma and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  With rapid increase in number of older persons, Malaysia is faced with multitude issues of graying population resulting from declining birth rate and rising life expectancy. In 2010 4.7% of the population was above 65 years old and the life expectancy was 71.7 years for males and 75 years for females. The New Economic Model for Malaysia (NEM) 2010 defines inclusiveness, high income and sustainability, as the three prong objective towards a developed nation in 2020. The underlying principle of the inclusiveness objective is to enable every Malaysian to have access to opportunities in order to contribute to the economy and to ensure that essential needs of the people are met. At least ten policy measures were recommended to improve the well being of the bottom 40% of the population, which has been identified as underserved. The question is, to what extent is the existing social safety net policy adequate to support every Malaysian to sustain a decent living? What are the issues and gaps with social safety net for older people? This paper attempts to answer these questions and to examine other related issues. It is divided into three parts: the first parts is an assessment of the existing social safety net in Malaysia; the second part looks at some case studies of NGO’s working with the older people and the final part offers some policy recommendations as a way forward.
 
 
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Financing old age in a rapidly ageing high income city state: the case of Singapore
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Asher, Mukul G. and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Singapore, an affluent city state, is among the most rapidly ageing society globally. This is due to low fertility rate (TFR of 1.2 in 2011); and increasing life expectancy (18.3 years for men and 21.8 years for women at age 65 in 2011). Its support ratio (working age persons/elderly) is projected to decline from 7.9 in 2011 to 2.2 by 2030, representing a steep decline. It primarily relies on a mandatory savings tier to finance old age. This tier is administered by a statutory Board called Central Provident Fund (CPF) under the Ministry of Manpower. The CPF has over the years been used not just for retirement, but for housing health care, and other purposes. Its wide scope and mandate has resulted in considerable complexity. This paper provides an assessment of the extent to which the current old age financing arrangements are likely to address longevity, inflation, and survivors’ risks faced by individuals in their old age. Not only each person will need support for a longer period in old age, but societal and individual expectations about old age support are also changing, reflecting the affluent society.
 
 
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Strengthening Malaysian families: evidence based interventions
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Abdul Rahman, Aminah and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Malaysian families today are facing numerous challenges related to changing family relationships, values, need for work life balance and support systems. Some of these key challenges are as a result of a new family forms, postponement of marriage, declining fertility and effects of inflation on family economic stability. At the same time, the impact of globalization has led to different values accepted by the young. Indeed, the challenges that Malaysian families will be facing in the future will be enormous. Despite changes in the structure, families remain the most basic unit of society and this has led to the formulation of the National Family Policy (NFP). The NFP seeks to increase the family perspective in all socio-economic development design by engaging the public, private and people sectors. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB), lead the family programme which includes formulation, review as well as getting the commitment of all stakeholders. Current programmes were value added based on knowledge and information from censuses, surveys, opinion polls, local views and assessment of programmes.
 
 
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Social and economic aspects of elderly in Thailand
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Chandoevwit, Worawan and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Thailand is already an aging society. About 14% of population are elderly. Using a national survey, it can be shown that 16% of elderly households in the rural area have substandard living condition. The majority of elderly (60%) rely on remittance for their living. About 20% of elderly have to work for living and only 4% have government pension. Thailand is now organizing a National Saving Fund to promote saving for retirement. Another national survey finds that 80% of population want to save for their retirement but only 48% think that they can make regular monthly saving. This is consistent with another survey which finds that 50%-60% of elderly actually prepared themselves physically and mentally into the elder period. Elderly are less happy than the young. They are quite healthy, about 90% of those in the 65-74 age group can take care of themselves. It was quite normal in the Thai culture that children take care of their old parents. Above 80% of population expect that their children will take care of them physically, mentally, and financially when they become old. Taking care of old parents is something done by daughter. About 45% of elderly who are older than 94 years are taken care by daughter or daughter-in-law, another 38% take care of themselves. UN projects that Thailand will have 20 million elderly in the next 20 years which makes the elderly account for 26% of population or 45% of working age population. Without income security and long term care schemes for elderly, it would be very difficult for children to take care of their parents.
 
 
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Productive aging - role of NGO
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Cumaraswamy, Jayalatchumy and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Butler and Gleason (1985) define productive ageing as “the capacity of an individual or a population to serve in the paid workforce, to serve in volunteer activities, to assist in the family and to maintain himself or herself as independent as possible.” USIAMAS is a non-governmental organization (NGO), registered in 2002 with the Registrar of Societies. It is a non-profit and welfare related organization whose members are senior citizens themselves. USIAMAS was formed with the objectives of being a smart partner or consultant to government, corporate and other volunteer bodies who share the same mission and vision of planning, implementing, coordinating, evaluating policies, projects and programs for the wellbeing of senior citizens towards quality and meaningful life. Among the various programs run by USIAMAS to support productive ageing are seminars, capacity training programs for volunteers and with the cooperation of the Social Welfare Department of Malaysia manages an Activity Center for Senior Citizens in Kompleks Penyayang Sungai Buloh. USIAMAS was honored to be chosen by HELPAGE Korea to implement a pilot project on home-help in 2005. Home-help is a community support program aimed at ‘recruiting, developing and deploying volunteers to make regular visits as informal companions and soft-skilled caregivers to older persons staying in their homes.’The normal duties of a volunteer in a home-help program include ‘personal grooming, running errands, feeding, reminders on medication, writing letters, accompanying them on recreational activities, visit to hospitals, banks or supermarkets’ More often the mere art of listening and responding to the needs of older persons will help to overcome their feelings of ‘rejection, isolation, boredom and loneliness’. The pilot project which commenced in 2005 has now been extended to Negeri Sembilan and Melaka with the support of the Social Welfare Department of Malaysia.
 
 
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Innovative programs and services to enhance family well-being: Malaysia's experience
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Doshi-Gandhi, Anjli and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Families constantly face new pressures and challenges due to rapid Industrialisation, modernisation and globalisation. Globalization in general brings benefits to families but it also creates risks and challenges that must be anticipated and adapted to. Hence, we have to be alert and responsive to future challenges that families will face and equip them with the necessary knowledge, skills as well as provide the needed services. As family is the most fundamental and important social unit, commitments at the highest level should be sought. Family well-being in Malaysia has been affected positively or negatively by development. Currently, Malaysian families face many challenges as a consequence of the changes in its structure, the increase in the proportion of nuclear families and changing lifestyles. Adaptations will have to be made so as not to lose the family support system, such as for child care, care of the elderly and the infirmed. Hence, the 3P Approach (Public, Private and People) which involves the partnership of multiple stakeholders such as the government, civil society and CSOs in ensuring that the present and future generation is more peaceful, secure, tolerant, prosperous and sustainable is most paramount in nation building. There are various innovative initiatives that have been undertaken in strengthening the family institution such as the National Family Policy, 1Malaysia Family First (1MF1st) and 1 Malaysia Youth and Empowerment Support (1MYes) under the National Blue Ocean Strategy, Strengthening of Marriage Institution (SmartStart Pre-Marriage Program), 1 Stop Family Centre, family education programmes such as KASIH Modules, Parenting@Work, Smart Belanja@Lppkn, Lppkn@Community and counselling programmes. Realizing that the happiness of the people and wellbeing of the family is an important goal in becoming a high income country by 2020, the government is developing its own model of the United Nations World Happiness Index. Currently, Malaysia is placed 51st among 156 countries. Meanwhile, a National Family Wellbeing Index developed by the Ministry Of Women, Family and Community Development through the National Population and Family Development Board in 2011 found that the Family Wellbeing Index is 7.55 out of 10. The Family Well-Being (FWB) Index consists of seven domains; Family Functioning, Economy, Health, Safety, Community, Religion and Spirituality, and Housing and Environment. The FWB Index indicates that Malaysian families have a relatively high level of wellbeing but more still needs to be done.
 
 
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The Philippine pension system: promoting fairness and sustainability
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Estrada, Gemma and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  This paper presentation about sharing knowledge on the retirement system in the Phillippines, currently characterized by a four-pillar structure. The first pillar refers to social assistance programs created to address the needs of the elderly poor. The second pillar covers the following mandatory defined-benefit programs: (i) the Social Security System (SSS) for private sector workers, (ii) the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) for public sector workers, and (iii) the Armed Forces of the Philippines Retirement Service Benefit System for the military, which altogether cover about 79% of the labor force. The third pillar encompasses mandatory defined contribution programs, which can be further expanded. The fourth and final pillar covers voluntary pension programs, involving various forms of savings instrument. Because the pension system is fragmented, contributions and benefits vary depending on the program.
 
 
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Social protection for the older people in Vietnam: challenges and reform options
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Giang, Thanh Long and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  This paper aims to argue that the Vietnamese population has been aging more quickly than expected, and as such policies toward an aging population, particularly delivery of social protection services for the aged, should be well-prepared from now in order to have older and wealthier population in the coming decades. The paper shows that the social protection schemes in Viet Nam, especially pensions and social allowances, have expanded and reached various groups of old-age persons and played an important role in reducing old-age poverty. Yet, there have remained a number of challenges that will substantially influence the current system in term of financial sustainability and generational equity. For the pension scheme, the paper argues that the current setting will not be financially stable and generational equity and as such it should be transformed toward a new setting. For the social allowances, a universal cash transfer program for older people would be influential and cost-saving in terms of poverty reduction.
 
 
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Home care for older people in ASEAN member countries
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Cho, Hyunse and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  It is estimated that population of over 60 years in the South-Asia will triple between 2000 and 2050. By 2050, one out of four older people will be over the age of 80. This causes a growing need for welfare and health services for older people. However, the traditional family support system is under pressure due to the trend towards nuclear families, prevailing migration of children and increasing participation of women in the workforce. In most developing countries, the lack of appropriate programmes, policies and financing places further strain on an already stressed family system. In order to meet the growing needs of “CARE” services for older people in the community, HelpAge Korea have implemented HOME CARE project under the ROK-ASEAN Cooperation Project, which provides basic social and health related care services for older people who are poor and having difficulties of ADL at their home by volunteers. The HOME CARE project has been implemented in collaboration with government, non-government organizations and community people in 10 ASEAN member countries for 9 years from April 2003 to May 2012. The presentation shares the outcomes of HOME CARE project that has been successfully conducted in terms of developing localized model, strengthening GO & NGO collaboration for the expansion and influencing GO to integrate HOME CARE into policy framework. HOME CARE is one of community based care system to reduce the burden of the society and to improve the quality of life of older people. However, in responding to the need of vulnerable older people, there is no single solution but a series of care system is necessary. The presentation shares the future plan of ROK-ASEAN Cooperation Project on COMMUNITY BASED SERVICES of HelpAge Korea.
 
 
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Meeting the needs of older Malaysians: expansion, diversification, and multi-sector collaboration
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Tengku Abdul Hamid, Tengku Aizan and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The older population in Malaysia grew from 0.5 million in 1970 to almost 2.3 million in 2010, making up about 8% of the current total population. By 2020, one in ten Malaysians will be an older persons aged 60 years or over. Older Malaysians are a heterogeneous group with diverse demographic, socio-economic, cultural and religious characteristics. This paper assesses the adequacy, affordability, sustainability, equitability, predictability and robustness of current policies, programs and services to meet the needs of the ageing population in Malaysia. Based on the World Bank’s multipillar pension taxonomy, the analysis will focus on the social assistance scheme for the elderly (BOT), Pay-as-you-go financed state pension (JPA) and defined contribution funds (EPF). Between conditional cash transfers and mandatory retirement savings, the central role of informal support systems in old age has often been overlooked. Result from the past studies have shown that the family has played a central role in providing care and support for aged in Malaysia. A majority of older Malaysians still co-reside with their adult children and receives financial assistance from them. Older Malaysians today are living longer, better educated and wealthier and they will become consumers of a burgeoning silver industry. Balancing social and economic priorities in national development is a challenging task, but the two goals are not mutually exclusive. My topic focus on welfarism or paternalism will continue to render ageing populations as a dependent population, instead of empowering them. An inter-dependence approach, rooted in a mix of individual responsibility, family obligations, active civil society and state provisions (regulatory and non-regulatory), will enable a more broad-based and sustainable solution to meet the present and future needs of the elderly.
 
 
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Predictor of successful Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) treatment for infertile couples treated at a Malaysian clinic
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ismail, Maslinor and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The purpose of the study was to determine prognostic factors that affect the success rate of Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) as well as association of prognostic factors with success rate of IUI treatment for infertile couples. A retrospective cohort study investigating the prognostic factors affecting success of IUI was done at National Infertility clinic. A total of 1585 couples involving 3249 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) were recruited from lst January 2000 till 3lst December 2006. The pregnancy rate per cycle and per couple was 3.7% and 7.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis had determined three prognostic variables as regards pregnancy namely as duration of infertility a = 0.002), interval of menstrual cycle a = 0.00025) and sperm count a = 0.016). The percentage of women successfully pregnant after cycle one till cycle 5 IUI were ranging from 3.4% to 4.8%. Results showed that no pregnancy occurred after the sixth cycle of IUI. The result suggests that duration of infertility is of utmost important determinants of an infertile couple in view of IUI success rate.
 
 
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Indikator kesejahteraan keluarga
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Family well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that covers various aspects of an individual or family's living situation. To date, there is no specific measure that can describe the state of family well -being in Malaysia. Thus, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) and the International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM) has implemented a research project called the Study of Family Well -Being Indicators in 2011 to understand more comprehensively about family well -being where at the end of this project, an index will be developed. In total, after going through several formative processes such as literature review, focus group discussion and pilot study, there are 7 domains and 23 indicators have been identified. The development of such domains and indicators of family well-being has focused on subjective well-being where each family is asked to provide an assessment on certain aspects related to their family. The study was conducted on 2,808 households involving a total of 5,616 respondents, consisting of 1,484 fathers, 1,324 mothers and 2,808 adolescents aged between 13 to 24 years. The selection of households in this study has used stratified random sampling method and done by face -to -face interviews. The results show that the Family Well -Being Index is at 75.5 which means that the well -being of Malaysian families is quite high. The Family and Religion/Spirituality domain recorded the highest domain score of 82.5. This was followed by the domain scores Family and Community (78.3), Family Relationships (78.2), Family Safety (73.9), Family Health (73.8), Family and Environment (72.8) and Family Economics (69.0). Based on the results of the IKK study, some suggestions that can be taken into account to improve the level of family well -being are to improve family living standards, increase family resilience, balance work and family demands as well as increase awareness on family safety.
 
 
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Bantuan sokongan dari wanita kepada ibubapa dan ibubapa mertua
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Teh, Jane Kimm Li and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  This study investigated ethnic diversity and other influencing factors among Malaysian women in Peninsular Malaysia in providing tangible support to their parents and parents-in-law. Data from the Women Sample of Malaysian Population and Family Survey (2004) was utilized. Tangible support was defined as either co-residing with parents (or in-laws), or financial/material transfers. Using logistic regression, we estimated the support to parents and parents-in-law separately. All possible pairwise interactions were tested using likelihood ratio test and Wald statistics, and significant interactions were added into each main effects model. Results revealed ethnic diversity in support. More offspring of women reduced support to parents only, while higher socioeconomic status of women increased support to both parents. Results also revealed that most divorcees co-resided with parents. Overall, most Malaysian women provide support to both sets of parents. Social policy should address opportunities for improving social mobility in women.
 
 
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Keinginan kesuburan
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Azman, Nur Airena Aireen and
Aziz, Azlan and
Ismail, Najihah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The decline in fertility rates in Malaysia is happening rapidly and it is expected that the rate will reach the replacement level (replacement level = 2.1) in 2015. A woman's desire/decision to have a child has a direct impact on the fertility rate and population growth. Thus, the study aims to identify the factors that influence women's desire to have children or do not need to be implemented. Data and Methodology: This paper presents the preliminary findings of the study Fertility at the Crossroad: Children Now, Later or Never conducted by LPPKN in 2012. This study uses a cross -sectional survey design method with a focus on women in the reproductive age group. 15-49 years working in the public sector in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Selangor. The method of data collection was through face -to -face interviews and self -administered using a questionnaire. Through stratified sampling method, a total of 98 public sector agencies were selected. To achieve the objectives of the study, the data obtained were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, Chi Square and Logistic Regression (Forward LR Method). The dependent variable studied was the desire to have children (0 = do not want more children, 1 = want more children). While there are nine (9) independent variables studied namely age, ethnicity, education level, job grade (Management and Professional/Support), income, number of childbirths, pregnancy history (miscarriage/stillbirth/abortion), fertility problems and The husband lives far away. Findings: In total, a total of 1,898 data for women working in the public sector were analyzed. A total of 75.9% of respondents have a desire to have children. The results of Chi -Square analysis showed that the variables of age, ethnicity, income, number of births, pregnancy history, fertility problems and husbands living far apart had a significant relationship with the desire to have children. However, there is no evidence to suggest that post grade has a relationship with childbearing desire. Logistic regression test (Forward LR Method) showed that 57.8% of the variation in women's desire to have children can be explained by four independent variables, namely fertility problems, ethnicity, age and number of births. Conclusion: The results of the study found that women's desire to have children can be considered high. To support women's desire to have children, various forms of assistance/support should be provided by the employer/government. Among the main assistance/support needed are childcare centers at work, holiday facilities to care for sick children, subsidized childcare costs and full-paid facilities for children in need of special care.
 
 
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Proses kaunseling keluarga di Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mohd Noor, Norhayati and
Mahmud, Zuria and
Abd. Rahman, Saemah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Family counseling is one of the interventions in family services for built a healthy family in Malaysia. This is a qualitative case study of a variety of 'settings' aims to explore the phenomenon of family counseling process conducted by practitioners in Malaysia with an in-depth interview technique, observation and document analysis. Study participants in the study were 12 family counseling practitioners from three counseling service centers. This study has five research questions namely to (i) identify the type of cases handled, number of cases and causes of problems in the family counseling process (ii) identify the initial relationship in the family counseling process (iii) explore the family counseling process (iv) identify approaches and skills used in family counseling and (v) explore the impetus and challenges of the family counseling process among family counseling practitioners in various settings in Malaysia. Cross -case analysis method based on interviews, observations and document analysis on family counseling practitioners was implemented using Nvivo 8 software. In this study, 190 themes and sub -themes were produced from 12 study participants. The results show that there are some similarities and differences between the family counseling process in Malaysia and the process framework in Western countries. These similarities and differences occur at all levels of the counseling process, skills, use of techniques, application of theory, and challenges in practice. The results of the study also show that the family counseling process among practitioners in Malaysia is tied to the education and training received by the practitioner, the context of religion, culture, values ​​and SES of the family and community in Malaysia. Therefore, this study contributes to the provision of family counseling process that is very necessary in strengthening the family institution and can be an intervention in building a generation of excellent Malaysian society.
 
 
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Kajian kesihatan reproduktif & seksual remaja
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Ahmad, Noor Ani and
Aris, Tahir and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The increase in reproductive and social health issues among adolescents has been hotly debated both nationally and internationally. Every day, Malaysians are presented with news on adolescent misconduct, especially those involving cases of abortion and out -of -wedlock pregnancies. Therefore, a specific study to look at the level of reproductive and sexual health of adolescents and the factors that influence it was conducted based on the results of the national level of adolescent health research. Methodology this cross -sectional study was conducted in 2010 using secondary data from the Adolescent Health Screening Form (BSSK/R/1/2008) which was filled by trainees of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) in 80 NSTP camps throughout the country. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi -square test and logistic regression using SPSS software. The parameters studied included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity and level of education) and social characteristics (risky behavior, history of abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse, religion, and family relationships). While there are nine (9) SRH issues that were studied, namely masturbation, watching pornography, extramarital sex, multi -partner sex, STIs, homosexual tendencies, homosexual relationships, pregnancy and abortion. Results A total of 23,231 data were analyzed. Of these, a total of 22,750 respondents aged 18-24 years were screened for the purpose of study analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the issue of watching and reading pornographic material among adolescents recorded the highest percentage (39.5%) followed by masturbation (28.5%) and extramarital sex (6.5%). All socio -demographic factors studied had a significant relationship with extramarital sex, homosexual predisposition and abortion (p <0.05). Risk factors for extramarital sex are the age group of 20-24 years (OR = 2.710, SK95% 1.967, 3.759), risky behavior (OR = 30.495 SK95% 19.683, 47.427), involvement in substance abuse (OR = 12.33 SK95% 8,051, 18,891), anti-social (OR = 2,615 SK95% 2,206, 3,100) and ever abused (OR = 1,726 SK95% 1,389, 2,145). While the appreciation of religion is a protective factor for adolescents where the study found that adolescents who appreciate religion are twice as likely to have sex compared to adolescents who do not appreciate religion. There is no evidence to suggest that familial relationship variables influence adolescents to have sex. Conclusion overall it can be concluded that adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues need to be given serious attention. This is because the results of the study show that the trend of extramarital sex among adolescents which is a key indicator of the level of adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues has increased from 2.2% in 2004 (MPFS-4) to 6.5% in 2010. Therefore, multisectoral cooperation programs are needed to address this issue. The implementation of intervention programs should also be focused on high-risk adolescents such as having risky behaviors, anti-social and involved in cases of substance abuse. The planning and preparation of the program must also take into account the concepts and teachings of religion practiced in Malaysia through an approach that can be accepted by adolescents. Further studies need to be conducted more extensively taking into account other factors that have yet to be explored.
 
 
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Innovative programmes and service delivery that enhanced family wellbeing: sharing of experiences
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mokhopadhyay, Bhavna Banati and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  While India has been on the path of economic progress over the last decade, our health system is at crossroads today. Even though Government initiatives in public health have recorded some noteworthy successes over time, the Indian health system is ranked 118 among 191 WHO member countries on overall health performance. There are wide variations in health indicators across the States (11 states with a population of 60%, still have a TFR of over 3 whereas 6 states with 11.4% of the population have already achieved replacement levels of fertility of 2.1. Some of the flagship programmes to improve the availability of and access to quality health care, especially for those residing in rural areas, the poor, women, and children, have been National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and Mahatama Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). This paper discusses the sharing of information on the health system in India.
 
 
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Retirement planning: Dynamic and holistic approach in bridging the gaps and mitigating the risks
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Othman, Hamadah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Most of us will one day row old and frail. Some will be fortunate enough to be endowed with wealth and good health in retirement years. But others in fact many of us, some call it the 99% group, will not be so fortune. We may have wealth but not health. We may be healthy but not wealthy. Many will probably have enough income to put food and drink on the table, and roof over the head, but will there be enough to cover unexpected expenses? Can we depend on our children to financially and/or physically take care of us in our golden years? They too will likely be facing similar problems such as soaring costs of housing, children’s education, lifestyle upgrading, busy schedule and others making it less likely that we can depend on them for assistance. This paper discusses the needs as we age, identifies gaps that may occur and suggests the best ways for us to share and meet needs as individuals and as a nation. Retirement planning is dynamic and holistic. We are not just planning to build up wealth and good health, we must also plan to protect our wealth and health. When planning for retirement, all risks that we might face must be understood at the outset and strategies to mitigate them must be worked out.
 
 
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Income security systems in the Republic of Korea? Directions for development
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Donghyun, Park and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The four goals of public pensions - extension of coverage, provision of adequate benefits, an equitable share of costs between generations, and financial stability - are all important. However, as these four goals conflict and influence one another, it is difficult to attain them simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to compromise these goals at a certain level. National Pension in Korea has been developed within an astonishingly short period. However, coverage is still unsatisfactory and long-term financial state is unstable. These two issues seem to be the most urgent reform priorities. The former may be the most important issue because National Pension exists for the income security of people. Meanwhile, adequacy of benefit was partly relaxed through two reforms. Though long-term financial stability and equity between generations have been improved through some sacrifice of benefit level, these issues are still regarded as unresolved and need additional measures in Korea, one of the most rapidly ageing countries. In this paper, we examine the four major goals of National Pension, namely coverage, adequacy of benefit, inter-generational equity, and long-term financial stability. The coverage of the scheme should be extended and the average contribution period should be increased. Coverage must increase 10% by 2030 in terms of the ratio of old age pensioners to total old age people aged 65 and over. The benefit level of the National Pension may be targeted to 30% of average earnings in real term as of 2030. Other sources of old-age income can be from working, private pensions, and savings. For more stable finance and better equity between generations, we review four financial goals.
 
 
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Determinants of contraceptive behaviour among married women in Peninsular Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ramli, Norazila and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Modelling the trends and patterns of contraceptive use have drawn great interests among researchers worldwide but the case is not so in Malaysia. This study models the relationship between contraceptive use and several socio-demographic factors that include age at first marriage, ethnic group, level of education, employment status, place of residence, and number of life birth, of married women in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are; to describe the trend of contraceptive behaviour according to socio-demographic factors that affect their decision in contraceptive practices and also to identify determinants of contraceptive use among married women in Malaysia. Based on the trend analysis, the study indicates that there is an increasing pattern of women delaying marriage. The general trend of contraceptive use also indicates that there have been changes in the behaviour of users according to selected socio-demographic characteristics across these surveys. Specifically, Malay women are more likely to practice family planning compared to Chinese and Indian women. The overall trend across ethnic group shows that Malay contraceptive users’ behaviour were in contrast with that of Chinese users in most aspects. Favourable contraceptive methods among Malaysian women were oral and traditional methods. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants of Malaysian women’s decision in birth control practice. Multinomial logistic regression was also applied to estimate the probability of favourable contraceptive method among these women in their contraceptive practice. Based on this study, it is found that among all selected socio-demographic characteristics, women’s employment had no significant effect on women’s decision in contraceptive practice and their choice of contraceptive method. This study has also discovered that women’s age, their age at first marriage, women’s desire to have more children, number of pregnancies, educational attainment, and ethnicity are determinants that significantly influence Malaysianwomen’s decision towards contraceptive practice and their choice of contraceptive method.
 
 
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Pengkelasan keberkesanan perancang keluarga menggunakan pepohon keputusan
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Rahim, Susilawati and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Awareness of the importance of family planning practices for a family institution in Malaysia began around the 1960s. In order to plan family size it is important to determine the appropriate and effective method of family planning. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop a best classification model and identify the factors of effectiveness of such methods and also for women who do not use any family planning method, factors that influence the effectiveness of non-use of methods are also identified. Classification techniques in data mining were used to obtain patterns of effectiveness of the family planning methods used. The classification techniques used are result trees J48, ID3, Random Tree, REPTree and Bayes classifier Naive Bayes. Secondary data from the fourth set of the Malaysian Population and Family Survey (MPFS) obtained from the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) were used in this study. To obtain the best classification model, 10-fold cross validation method, Weka and Mynda applications were used. The test results found that the J48 result tree was selected as the best classification model because this model provides the highest accuracy values for both data sets of 87.83% and 80.42% compared to other techniques. The study has produced a decision tree that can generate a set of tips to identify the effectiveness of family planning methods used and a set of tips to identify the effectiveness of those who do not use family planning methods. In conclusion, this study does not cover women who are using family planning methods and it is hoped that future studies will cover the effectiveness of the method for women who are using family planning methods and make pattern comparisons based on MPFS 1, MPFS 2, MPFS 3 and MPFS 4 data sets.
 
 
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Strategi kelangsungan hidup pekerja asing warga Indonesia dan implikasi sosial akibat kehadiran mereka di Sabah
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Sayed Mahadi, Syed Abdul Razak and
Hugo, Graeme and
Rudd, Dianne and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Sabah's direction focuses on the development of 3 main sectors such as agriculture, tourism and manufacturing to drive the economy. As an agro -economy -based state, the 2010 census recorded 30 per cent of the total workforce engaged in the agricultural sector. As locals are not interested in seizing employment opportunities in the 3D -based agriculture and plantation sector (Difficult, Dirty & Dangerous), job vacancies are filled mainly by Indonesian workers as shown in data obtained from Temporary Work Visit Passes (TWVP). Certainly, their presence has social implications for the state of Sabah which housed 27.7 percent of the foreign population in 2010. Therefore, a micro study needs to be conducted to understand and analyze this situation. A joint study was conducted with NPFDB, in which a total of 896 respondents consisting of Indonesian workers from the plantation, manufacturing, construction, services and informal sectors were interviewed in a survey in the Tawau Division in 2010. In addition, primary data were also collected from interviews. Conducted among legal and illegal employees as well as based on the researcher’s observations. Interviews with government officials directly involved with the management and recruitment of foreign workers were also conducted. Secondary data were obtained from various government agencies in Sabah such as the Immigration Department, Manpower Department, Statistics Department, Health Department and Education Department. This study successfully identified 5 survival strategies that are often used by Indonesian workers to ensure the success of their migration, namely family networking, choice of residence, cultural adaptation and assimilation, economic survival and involvement in social and political institutions. Of course, the implementation of this strategy has a social impact on the local people. Important findings of this study show that most Indonesian workers come to Sabah with family members. Certainly the presence of spouses and children has huge implications for social facilities especially health and education. Therefore, there must be integration between the entry of foreign workers with Sabah's development planning, especially if the dependence on foreign labor continues until Sabah achieves the status of a technology - intensive economy in the future.
 
 
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Kontraseptif kecemasan: kesedaran dan penggunaannya
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Shekh Abdullah, Faezah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Emergency contraceptive (EC) is one of the methods of contraception used after unprotected sex. With proper use, this method of emergency contraception can help reduce the problems of unplanned or unwanted pregnancies that have been frequent in recent times. The objective of this study was to identify women’s awareness of emergency contraceptive methods and their level of use. The research method involved the distribution of questionnaires to 1000 women, aged 15 to 49 years, who attended programs organized by NPFDB. Data collection and analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5 software. The chi -square test was used to study the relationship between the sociodemographics of the respondents and the variables studied. The coverage of the study consisted of 84% Malay women, and was followed by Indians (9%) and Chinese (6%). The majority of respondents (43%) were in the range of 25 to 34 years, with a mean age of 33 years. Contraceptive use among respondents was found to be 26.3%, of which 98% were married women. The study found that women’s awareness of EC and its level of use was low, being only 29% and 3.9%, respectively. The chi -square test results showed that the level of awareness of EC increased with age (p <0.05). In addition, more highly educated women were found to have heard of EC (p <0.05) compared to low levels. Most EC users are from the married group. Nearly 70% of women who are using contraceptives are found to have used EC. Among women who have never used EC, only 21% are interested in using it in the future. However, the majority (70%) support this service provided at NPFDB. The lack of exposure on EC results in the number of women interested in using it being low. Therefore, NPFDB and related parties need to enhance promotional activities, advocacy and learning of emergency contraceptive methods, in addition to other methods, so that the community knows about it and can use it during emergencies.
 
 
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Population aging in China: features, challenges & strategies
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Zhang, Yang and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Global response to population aging is confronted by a series of severe challenges, for example retirement and medical/caring costs adds to fiscal burdens, population aging withers the labor force, development and aging problems intermingle as growth of the aged population mostly takes place in developing countries and poverty of the aged remains an acute problem. All these issues may only be addressed when national governments all over the world take the needs of the aged into full consideration in developing their social policies, establish specific strategies for responding to population aging and incorporate such strategies into long-term national development frameworks. Population aging also reflects the progress and achievement that the human society has made in extending life expectancy, improving mother and child health and helping women realize family planning. Seniors are more than just beneficiaries of social welfare. As producers, consumers, spreaders of traditional cultures, care-takers of children in their families and communities, seniors also play positive irreplaceable roles. A shared goal for us all therefore is to regard aging as an achievement, respond to age-related issues with a positive, optimistic and rational altitude, view skills, experiences and resources of the elderly as capital of the social development course, incorporate aging into our development agendas, promote positive aging and thereby construct a sharing society regardless of age.
 
 
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Infographic (3)


Newsletter (2)




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National experience in population matters: adolescents and youth
Item Type: Newsletter
Author: 
Author: 
Editor: 
Ismail, Siti Norlasiah and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Muda, Rozi and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Mazalan, Mohd. Firdaus and
Abdullah Daud, Noor Azizan and
Abdul Hamid, Azian and
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Adequate and accurate sexual and reproductive health information helps young people to make informed and responsible decisions. Howewer, cultural and religious sensitivities within the communities remain one of the major challenges in implementing reproductive health education for young people. Parents are still uncomfortable talking about reproductive health matters with their children ,leaving their children dependent upon information from their peers or other sources like the internet. The Government of Malaysia takes cognisance of the increasing importance of the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents and youth in Malaysia. Hence, the Government of Malaysia has put in place various policies and programmes to handle the sexual and reproductive health needs of the adolescents and youths. One of the main initiatives is the Healthy Programme without AIDS for Youth (PROSTAR). The Government of Malaysia also has established six youth-friendly adolescent centres known as kafe@TEEN to increase access to reproductive health information and services for young people aged 13 to 24 years.
 
 
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Scientific Poster (2)




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The impact of Indonesian migrants from the locals' perception: a study in Sabah, Malaysia
Item Type: Scientific Poster
Author: 
Azman, Nur Airena Aireen and
Muda, Syafina and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/08/2012
Abstract:  Being a developed country, Malaysia has been receiving a large number of labour migrants from other neighboring countries. Statistics show that the total number of non-Malaysians in 2010 is 2.3 million compared to 1.3 million in the year 2000. It is over 8 percent of the total population in Malaysia and comprises mostly of Indonesian migrants. This phenomena has a great impact on Malaysia and its people. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of Indonesian migrants from the locals' perception and also to determine if gender, ethnicity, religion, marital status, educational level, job industry and monthly income make a difference in their perception. The data used for this study were obtained from the Study on Indonesian Migrants in Tawau, Sabah conducted by the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) Malaysia in 2010. The survey managed to obtain information from 787 locals in Tawau. The dependent variable is the overall perception of the locals on the impact of the Indonesian migrants while the independent variables are gender, ethnicity, religion, marital status, educational level, job industry and monthly income. Independent t-test and analysis of variances (ANOVA) were applied to the data set. As a result, this study indicates that the locals in Tawau feel that the presence of the Indonesian migrants does have an effect on them. The mean score obtained was 95.053 out of a total of 135. The results of ANOVA showed that ethnicity (F = 6.950, df = 7), marital status (F = 12.320, df = 3), education level (F = 4.058, df = 7), job industry (F = 27.374, df = 3), and monthly income (F = 15.201, df = 6) contributed to the differences in the locals' perception on the impact of Indonesian migrants. Only gender and religion does not affect their perception. Thus, the entrance of Indonesian workers needs to be monitored as their presence are affecting the locals.
 
 
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Remittance behaviour among Indonesian migrant workers in Sabah, Malaysia
Item Type: Scientific Poster
Author: 
Mahpul, Irwan Nadzif and
Abdul Hamid, Rosdiana and
Author: 
Editor: 
, and
Year:  00/08/2012
Abstract:  Malaysia is both a country of origin and destination for migration especially among the labour migrants both documented and undocumented. According to The World Bank's Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011, the stock of immigrants in Malaysia is estimated at 2.4 million as at 2010 and the top source countries include Indonesia, Philippines, China, Bangladesh, India, Singapore, Thailand, Japan, Myanmar, and Pakistan. Generally, Malaysia is the major destination country for Indonesian migrants because of its geographical, cultural, and religous proximity to Indonesia. The objective of this study is to investigate remittance behaviour among Indonesian migrants including the decision to remit and use of informal methods of transferring remittance. The data used was obtained from the Study of Indonesian Migrant Workers in Tawau, Sabah conducted by the National Population and Family Development Board Malaysia in 2010. Three different sets of questionnaire-based survey were conducted on both migrants and non-migrants, namely 896 Indonesian migrant workers, 37 employers who hired the Indonesian migrant workers, and 787 locals in Sabah. Both descriptive and multivariate analyses have been applied in order to study the remittance behaviour of the migrants. At the initial stage, the descriptive analysis explained the percentage of migrants who send remittance and migrants who use informal channels according to their characteristics. Then, logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors that influence migrants' decision to send remittance and the use of informal methods of transferring remittance. The results of this study showed that age, monthly income, number of children residing in Indonesia, having own house in Indonesia and sending goods to Indonesia are the main factors contributing to the migrants' decision to remit. It was found that the likelihood to remit among migrants increased with age, income and number of children residing in Indonesia. Those who own house in their origin country and sending goods to the country are more likely to remit. In the analysis of methods of transferring remittance, it was found that birth place, number of children residing in Indonesia and the total amount of money remitted have significant relationship with the use of informal channels. The likelihood of using informal channels is higher among migrants from Sulawesi as compared to the other parts of Indonesia. As the number of children residing in Indonesia and amount of money remitted increased, the likelihood of using informal channels had decreased.
 
 
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Thesis (2)




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The effectiveness of human resource training programme at the National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Ismail, Adzhar and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  10/12/2012
Abstract:  Training is a part of human basic needs to achieve perfects or efficiency in doing task. In the public service, training is a must for everyone in order to enhance their skills, knowledge and attitude. This study is to find out the effectiveness of Human Resource Training Policy. The study was done at the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB), one of the Government agency under a Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development. The data is collected through distributed questionnaire among the officers and staffs at NPFDB. The questionnaire is divided into 3 part consists respondent profile, effectiveness of training program (13 question) and employee attitude towards training (13 question) and ended with comment or suggestion from respondent if any. Secondary data also is used provided by the Human Resource Department, NPFDB. Quantitative analysis is carried out on this data and standard SPSS (version 18.0) is used to run the analysis. Descriptive statistic is used to analyse respondent's profile. The study shows that independent variable are negative significant with dependent variable. The perception and perceived outcome of the study point that the human resource training policy is significant and acceptable.
 
 
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Mediating effect of work-family psychological contract on the relationship between perceived organization support and job satisfaction
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Saharom, Shahriah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/10/2012
Abstract:  Job satisfaction is a broad construct, regarding all or most the characteristics of the job itself and the work environment, which employees find rewarding, fulfilling and satisfying or frustrating and unsatisfying (Weiss,2002). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of work-family psychological contract as mediator in the relationship between family supportive organization perception and family supportive supervisor, and job satisfaction. Besides, this study is to examine the relationship between family supportive organization perception, family supportive supervisor and work-family psychological contract and job satisfaction. The respondent of this study included 158 executive level in grade 27 and 41 at the National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The study employed the structural equation model analysis. The results show that work-family psychological contract mediates the relationship between family supportive organization perception and family supportive supervisor, and job satisfaction. However, there is a non significant relationship between family supportive organization perception with job satisfaction. Since the result of this study revealed that work-family psychological contract play the important role to increase a job satisfaction among the employees, this study was suggested that employer can increase the level of job satisfaction through their strong support in work-family aspect to help the employees balance their work and family.
 
 
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