|Adolescents are the future leaders of the country and have a huge influence on the social, economic and political situation of the country. However, with the presence of various social problems that plague teenagers today, it is feared that it will affect their future which in turn is detrimental to the country. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) has taken the initiative by developing the Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action Plan (PKRS) which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under this PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) is one (1) of the agencies that implement the program. In line with the implementation of this policy, the National Service Training Council has agreed with MWFCD's proposal for PKRS to be implemented in PLKN. Following that, NPFDB has implemented one (1) Pre and Post Test Study to trainees to assess the level of knowledge and perception on reproductive and social health before and after the teaching of this PKRS module is conducted. This study also aimed to examine the sexual and reproductive behaviors of trainees.
This study was conducted in 2011 in a cross section on PLKN Trainees aged 17 years and above in selected National Service Training Camps in Malaysia using independent random sampling. The total sample required was 1,038 people. The calculation of this sample size is based on an estimated 31,200 PLKN trainees who are required to attend training using Confidence Interval (95%), Margin of Error (1.5%) and Prevalence of Having Sex Out of Wedlock Among Adolescents (6.5%), (Naing L, 2006). Questionnaires were developed according to the needs and objectives of the study. One-third of the questions of this questionnaire were adapted from an international study, namely the Youth Risk Surveillance Survey, 2011 but adapted according to the objectives of the study and the culture of the community in Malaysia. The method of questionnaire administration was self administered. The scope of the questionnaire covers three (3) domains namely demographic information, knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive and social health as well as adolescent sexual behavior. A total of 1,300 pieces of assessment forms (pre and post -test) were distributed during the first teaching session of the module. Of that number, only 1,063 forms were received for analysis. After the initial analysis was conducted, it was found that there were some questions that were not fully answered by the respondents. Therefore, the data analysis will vary according to the number of participants who answered for each section. In total, a total of 1,063 respondents were successfully covered in 13 training camps nationwide.
The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the respondents consisted of 57.8% male adolescents and 42.2% female. The majority of respondents were aged between 17 to 19 years (95.6%) with a mean age of around 18 years. Based on the ethnic composition, 66.7% are Malays, 15.3% Chinese, 4.2% Indians and 13.8% are other ethnicities including Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputera. Most respondents have SPM education (95.6%) and are unmarried (99.6%).
The overall findings of the study can be summarized that the level of respondents' knowledge on reproductive and sexual health increased significantly (p <0.05) after undergoing the PKRS module with an increase in mean knowledge score of 7.04±2.2 (before undergoing the module) to 9.17±2.1. A total of 71.1% of respondents obtained a score of 9 out of 12 items (75.0%) and above after undergoing the module. There was a significant change in attitudes (p <0.05) on reproductive and social health after undergoing PKRS training. This indirectly shows that this PKRS module seeks to help respondents change their attitudes in a more positive direction.
A total of 10.4% of respondents admitted to having had sex. The mean age of having sex for the first time is about 15 years. 45.5 percent of them had sex with more than one partner. Only 2.1 percent admitted to being sexually attracted to the same sex with 18.2% of them admitting to having had same -sex sex.