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Results for Item type : "Research Report"

2023 (1)




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Enhancing Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia.,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2023
Abstract:  Polycystic ovary syndrome or known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder and one of the main causes of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age, which is 15 to 49 years (Balen et al., 2016). The main characteristics of women with PCOS are ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries (Balen and Michelmore., 2002). This syndrome is associated with metabolic syndromes such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 1 (Barthemess and Naz., 2014) and arteriosclerosis (Orio et al., 2004). The general objective of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics, clinical and medical history, of PCOS sufferers as well as appropriate treatment methods among clients seeking fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. This study is an experimental, case control study involving female clients who come to seek fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. The chosen location is LPPKN Headquarters, Kuala Lumpur. Every female client who attends needs to meet the patient selection criteria, namely a Malaysian couple, trying to conceive for more than a year and aged between 25 to 38 years old. Every patient who faces subfertility problem is divided into two groups, namely PCOS and no PCOS. Patients who are eligible and agree to participate in the study have gone through at least five (5) series of appointments with medical officers and nurses. A total of 167 patients participated in this study with an average age of 30 years.
 
 
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2020 (3)




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Executive Summary: youth intervention study: best practices of youth intervention programmes in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2020
Abstract:  In the decades, Malaysia has undergone rapid economic, social and cultural changes which impacted not only the daily lives of its people but also their worldview and values. This is particularly so for young people, as excessive exposure to information from the social media, internet and pornography had inevitably influence their lifestyle and behaviour. The socio-cultural changes are likely associated with an increased rates of non-marital sexual activity, increased rates of sex partner change and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2005, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through NPFDB introduced the PEKERTI Programme to be implemented at KafeTEEN adolescents centres. The programme provides reproductive health services, counseling services and education and skill building to promote a healthy life and inculcate positive attitudes and moral values among young people.
 
 
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Report on Malaysia Family Well-Being Index 2019
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2020
Abstract:  The Family Well -Being Index (FWI) is a multi -dimensional benchmark specially developed to measure the level of family well -being in Malaysia. This index is generated through a mother’s or father’s assessment of their family’s well -being. The 2019 Malaysian Family Well -Being Index score recorded in this study is 7.72 out of a maximum scale of 10. Of the eight domains that have been identified, the Family Relationship Domain recorded the highest domain score of 8.35. This is followed The study also found that the 2019 FWI score is increasing according to household income group. The 2019 FWI score is higher in families living in rural areas. In terms of family type, FWI 2019 scores were higher in family groups by Family Domain, Role of Religion and Spiritual Practice (8.25), Family Domain and Community Involvement (8.00), Family Safety Domain (7.86), Family Economics Domain (7.67), Family Health Domain (7.44), Housing and Environment Domain (7.35) and Family and Communication Technology Domain (6.82). Although the score of FWI 2019 is still at a moderate level but it has shown an increase of 0.39 points compared to 7.33 for FWI 2016.
 
 
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Situational analysis on family planning and reproductive health education in Malaysia and other selected Muslim countries Part I: needs analysis on family planning policy Part II: reproductive health education: policy and plan of action
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2020
Abstract:  This study is an initiative by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) through the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), who has been a strategic partner of NPFDB since the 1990s in the Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) programmes. This study was conducted at where there are rapid changes in the population dynamics and demographic trends together with the advancement in human capacity development and new communication technologies. It is an effort that enables the nation to achieve its commitment locally towards Malaysia’s Shared Prosperity Vision 2030 agenda and internationally, such as the ICPD Plan of Action. The objective of the study is to identify the best practices of reproductive and sexual health (SRH) programs including family planning and reproductive and sexual health education (SRHE) among selected Islamic countries that practice sunni sects to provide direction to Malaysia. Five (5) countries were selected for the purpose of comparison with Malaysia are Turkey, Egypt, Morocco and Bangladesh. The report of this study proposes several strategies and improvements as a result of a gap analysis with other Muslim countries that can help strengthen the strategy and implementation of the National Sexual and Reproductive Health programmes to improve reproductive health indicators such as Maternal Mortality Rate, Infant Mortality Rate and Age Specific Fertility Rate, as well as reducing the number of cases of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual abuse and sexual crimes.
 
 
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2018 (2)




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Laporan fertility at the crossroad-children now, later or never
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2018
Abstract:  This study was to identify the socio-economic and psychological factors that influence the decision of women working in the public and private sectors to want to have children now, postpone pregnancy or do not want to have another child/children. It also to identify forms of support that can be provided by employers in an effort to create a family -friendly work environment. Nowadays, the issue of declining fertility rates is becoming a global issue, not just in among developed countries even in developing countries. Most countries have experienced fertility decline since the 1970s. United Nations Projections (UN) indicates most countries in the Asia Pacific region will experience a decline total fertility rate (TFR) until 2015-2030. Countries like China, Japan and Singapore have achieved TFR below the substitution level for decades ago. Rapid socio -economic development in Malaysia over the past five decades has resulted in a decrease in births and deaths as well as an increase in migration. Malaysia is currently in the second phase of a demographic transition where fertility rates are increasing decreased while the percentage of the elderly population increased. Decrease in rate mortality and fertility are closely linked to improved quality of life giving significant impact on the growth and size of the Malaysian population.
 
 
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2017 (4)




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Kajian Pengesanan Mikrodelesi Kromosom Y dalam kalangan klien Infertiliti di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  The study "Microdelesi of Y Chromosome among NPFDB Infertility Clients" conducted by the Biomedical Unit, NFPDB is to identify infertility factors from a genetic aspect. Study samples were obtained from infertility patients referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory, NPFDB from 2003 to 2010. A total of 100 blood samples of clients diagnosed as azoospermia (48), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (24), oligozoospermia (15), severe oligozoospermia (6), Klinefelter Syndrome (3) and idiopathy (4) were performed Chromosome Analysis Tests to identify any abnormalities of the number and structure on the chromosome and subsequently Molecular Testing is performed to detect the microdeletion of the Y chromosome. Majority of ethnic groups involved in the study are Malays, which is 74 people (74%) followed by Chinese; nine (9) people (9%), Indians; seven (7) people (7%) and other ethnicities from Sabah and Sarawak as many as 10 people (10%) in the age range of 23 to 46 years.The chromosome analysis test results for the 100 samples were normal which is, 46, XY, no abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes were found. Results was found that 15 samples (15%) underwent Y chromosome microdeletion at the AZF locus in molecular test. From 15 samples, 10 samples were azoospermia, three (3) severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia samples and two (2) oligozoospermia samples. Each sample experienced deletion at different locus and there were samples that experienced multiple deletion which involved deletion of more than one factor locus (AZF).The most common AZF factors found to experience deletion were AZFc (73.33%) followed by AZFb (53.33%), AZFd (40%) and AZFa (13.33%). In conclusion, it was found that genetic factors are one of the causes of infertility problems among clients came for subfertility treatment. Looking at the importance of undergoing genetic screening testing at an early stage, it is recommended that this test be tested for men diagnosed with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia at the Subfertility Clinic, NPFDB. The information obtained has prognostic value and influences the medical therapy chosen to assist in the clinical management of the client and his descendant in the future.
 
 
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Effects of socio-demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors on semen quality of men attending the sub fertility clinic in National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Couples are considered infertile if they are unable to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sex. The impact of lifestyle and environment on human fertility may vary depending on aetiology, demographic characteristics, genetic variation and other factors. As used by previous researchers, semen parameters were used to measure male infertility. Therefore, a decrease in semen quality is considered as a major factor in male infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen_quality). Previous studies (Kidd et al.2001,Eskenazi et al.2003, de La Rochebrochard and Thonneau 2003) have found that older men tend to have lower semen quality than younger ones. Testicular hyperthermia (elevated temperature) also has been known to affect male fertility. Men who like taking hot baths or sit in a sedentary position for a long time are at risk of having infertility. The objectives of this study are to identify the relationship between socio-demographic profile, lifestyle and environmental factors and semen quality, and to identify risk factors of poor semen quality among men attending the National Population and Family Development Board's (NPFDB) Subfertility Clinic. This study was done in Andrology Laboratory, NPFDB. Five hundred men from couples having their first infertility consultation between September 2010 abd June 2011 were recruited. Each patient was required to register, deposit semen and fill in the quesstionnaire. Sperm concentration, morphology and motility from semen analysis were used to study the relationship between semen quality and independent variables. Reference limits used were 15 cells x 10'6/ml, 4% and 40 %, respectively (World Health Organization, 2010). For statistical analysis, descriptive statistic, t test and ANOVA were used; 0.05 alpha value was chosen. Results showed that one-third of the study population were between 26 to 30 years of age and another one third were aged between 31 to 35 years old; mean age was 33.2. majority were Malays (71.2%), resided in Selangor (64.3%) and professionals (41.6%). Semen quality showed a negative relationship (p<0.05) with age. Meanwhile, sperm motility varied significantly for different ethnic group. Chinese (57.75%) had the highest motile-sperm compared to Malays (53.44%) and Indians (46.60%). Among lifestyles variables, frequency of sexual intercourse had a posive relationship (p<0.05) with sperm motility, whilst sedentary position had negative relationship (p<0.05) with the latter. Regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors of poor semen quality. This study found that men above 30 years old were two times more likely to have low sperm motility than men in the twenties. Moreover, less frequent sexual activity between couples was more likely (p<0.05) to have abnormal sperm compared to those who had sexual intercourse more frequently. In conclusion, this study suggested that age over 30 years and infrequent sexual activity were the risk factors to lower semen quality. Even though not regarded as a risk factor, sedentary work position had a negative impact on sperm motility. These factors may affect male fertility and cause difficulty in conception. Public awareness through advocacy programs and talks on infertility and its risk factors should be carried out regularly. Public education should be carried out to advice men to practice a healthy lifestyle and work life balance. This study has shown encouraging results, and should be replicated in the general population in Malaysia
 
 
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Kajian perbandingan penggunaan tiga jenis rawatan hormon FSH dalam kalangan pesakit subfertiliti yang menjalani prosedur permanian beradas di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Since 1979, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been providing subfertility management services to the public especially middle-income group. In line with the rapid pace of the latest technology and research developments, there are various types of fertility drugs in the form of injections which had been used in subfertility treatment. The main function of this injection is to mature the follicles where the main hormone contained in this injection is the follicle stimulating hormone (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, FSH). In general, there are three types of FSH injections, which is a recombinant FSH (rFSH) that have 100 percent synthetic hormone, urinary FSH (uFSH) that derived from menopausal urine and highly purified urinary FSH (hp-uFSH) that also derived from menopausal urine but more pure state than uFSH. All three hormones have FSH’s activities but uFSH and hp-uFSH also have Luteinizing Hormone’s activity (LH). Thus, NPFDB has taken initiative to conduct a comparative study on the use of three types of FSH hormone treatment, namely Gonal F (rFSH), Folliova (uFSH) and Menopur (hp-uFSH), among subfertilitie’s patient who’s undergoing Intrauterine Insemination Technique (IUI). Among others, the three types of hormones were studied in terms of effevtivenee and cost burden. The study sample was from patients with unknown cause of subfertilitie’s problem and they visit NPFDB Subfertilitie’s Clinic, Headquarters, from June 2010 to May 2012. The sampling method was random. The patient and researcher do not know the treatment regimen to be initiated until a closed sample containing the treatment regimen code number is opened by the patient before starting treatment. Data were collected, recorded and anlyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Although originally a total of 90 female patients were targeted to be recruited into this study. 30 patients for each type of FSH hormone, but at the end of the study only 39 patients met all eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in this study. The result showed that average of the patients was 28.3 years and the majority were ethnic Malays (76.9%). Most of the patients had a household income between RM 5,000.00 and RM 10,000.00 (51.4%). The percentage of patients requiring more than three injections to procedure mature follicles was lowest for Folliova (41.7%), compared with Menopur (50.0%) and Gonal F (55.6%). Similarly in terms of the number of follicles produced, the Folliova regime (58.3%) produced more follicles (more than three follicles) than other regimes. A total of 16.7 percent of patients who took Menopur injections were confirmed pregnant, while no pregnany occurred among patients who took Folliova and Gonal F. In terms of cost, at the time of this study, the price of three 75IU injections was RM 334.20 for Gonal F, RM 187.20 for Folliova and RM 271.20 for Menopur. In conclusion, this study shows that, hp-uFSH (Menopur) gives the highest pregnancy rate compared to Gonal F and Folliova. Furthemore, the price of Menopur is moderate (affordable) for patients. Therefore, highly purified urinary FSH is a good gonadotropin choice for couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing an IUI procedure and it may be the main choice for patients who need a combination fertility pill stimulation regimen and gonadotropin injections. As a suggestion, such a study should be conducted with a larger sample size to obtain more significant results and be representative of actual population.
 
 
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Report on Malaysian Family Well-Being Index 2016
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2017
Abstract:  The NPFDB (2011) defined family well-being as a safe, healthy, comfortable, harmonious and satisfying family condition. This definition covers various aspects, such as spiritual satisfaction and comfort in respect of their economy and finance; mental, psychosocial, and health; political: and sustainability. Family Well-Being Index (FWBI) 2016 measured the level of family well-being through a household's assessment by the father or mother regarding the well-being of their families. This index examined the level of well-being in terms of family relationships, family economy, family relationships, family economy, family health, family safety, family and community involvement, religious and spiritual practices, housing and the environment, and family and communications technologies in the country. The overall FWBI 2016 score was 7.33 out of a maximum score of 10.
 
 
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2016 (2)




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Report on key findings Fifth Malaysian Population and Family survey (MPFS-5) 2014
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/12/2016
Abstract:  The 2014 Malaysian Population and Family Survey is the fifth in a series of surveys conducted by the NPFDB every 10 years since 1974. This fifth survey was funded by the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department under the 10th Malaysia Plan allocation. In conducting the survey, the NPFDB received tremendous cooperation and support from various agencies at federal and state levels as well as from nongovernmental organisations. The purpose of this survey was to collect the latest information and time series data in respect of demography, family and reproductive health of the Malaysian population. It also aimed to update the indicators obtained based on the previous surveys in the series. The MPFS-5 provides specific information on the population, household, family formation, fertility, family planning, family life, health practices, elderly as well as the social and sexual behaviours of the adolescents. It also collected the latest information on career and family balance, well-being, breastfeeding, secondary infertility, financial management, intergenerational assistance and the use of social media.
 
 
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Research on risk and protective factors affecting adolescents' sexual and reproductive health in Sabah & Sarawak 2015
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  09/09/2016
Abstract:  A quarter of the world population (1.8 billion) consists of people aged 10-24 years (UN DESA, 2009). Adolescents is a phase of life whereby they have opportunities for developing healthy behaviours, which can determine the future pattern of adulth health. However, for most adolescents, this is the phase of self-discovery whereby they undergo biological, psychological, social and economic changes in their life. Curiosity and experimentation are normal among them where certain behaviours would place adolescents at risk of undesired consequences of their activity. There are various biological, social, educational and psychological risk factors that predispose adolescents to unhealthy and unsafe sexual phenomena such as premarital sex, having multiple sexual partners, unwanted pregnancy, early childbearing and illegal abortion. In terms of biological factors, early menarche, being male men and older age were found to be the significant risk factors. In addition, social factors including unemployment, peer influence (peer/ friends who have had sexual experience) and use of the substance such as alcohol, tend to increase the tendency of unsafe and unhealthy sexual practices (WHO, 2004). Besides, lack of sexual reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationship, inaccessibility of youth-friendly SRH services are other risk factors that had been identified (Low, 2006). Although there is limited data on teenage pregnancy in Malaysia, the increasing reports on incidences of abandoned babies indicate that increased premarital sexual intercourse resulted in unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. From 2005 to March 2014, it was reported that there were 561 cases of baby dumping (RMP, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). the number of reports of abortion indicates that there is an increase in the number of extramarital sex among unmarried adolescents. Many 51 cases of infant abandonment were reported in 2005 to March 2014 (PDRM, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). In 2012, a study was conducted to identify the risk and protective factors of adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia (NPFDB, 2015). There has been a dearth of studies on adolescents’ SRH in Sabah and Sarawak. Therefore, studies on SRH among this sub-population are warranted. Furthermore, there are differences in terms of demographic characteristics compared to Peninsular Malaysia. Based on these findings, more specific educational and intervention programmes tailored to the needs of the adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak need to be planned and implemented in order to prevent them from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. The objective of this study was to determine the risk and protective factors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak.
 
 
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2015 (2)




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Faktor risiko dan pelindung terhadap kesihatan seksual dan reproduktif remaja di Semenanjung Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  In Malaysia, statistics from the National Registration Department (NRD) show that a total of 214,033 illegitimate children were born from 2004 to 2009. While statistics from the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) show that 596 cases of baby abandonment were reported from 2005 to 2013. For the total number of rape crimes in among teenagers under the age of 18, PDRM statistics show an increase from 1,710 cases in 2006 to 2,658 cases in 2013. The increase in such cases shows that today's teenagers face the problem of moral decay and fragility of identity which is a concern of Malaysian society. Accordingly, knowledge of sexual and reproductive health can help adolescents avoid negative symptoms such as cases of extramarital pregnancies and social symptoms related to sexuality. The objective of this study was to (i). to study the prevalence of unhealthy sexual behavior among adolescents aged 13-24 years in peninsular Malaysia; (ii). identify risk factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH); and (iii). identify protective factors related to ASRH. This study was implemented using two (2) main approaches, namely quantitative and qualitative methods. The design of the quantitative study was successfully conducted on 5,088 adolescents aged 13 to 24 years. The qualitative study involved a total of eight (8) Focus Group Discussions (FGD) conducted in eight (8) selected detention centers and shelter hostels located in several states in Peninsular Malaysia.
 
 
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Family Well-Being Index Report Malaysia 2011
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  In the past few decades, Malaysia has and is still undergoing a process of rapid social and economic development. This is a result of policies implemented by the government such as the New Development Policy (1991-2000), National Vision Policy (2001-2010) and Government Transformation Programme (2010-2020) which all aim to transform Malaysia into a developed and competitive country. However, the processes has imposed increased demands on the family institution because of the responsibilities and the challenges faced by the family itself. The family institution must be strengthened to offset the rapid process of social and economic development. This is important because family is the basic social unit which prepares and supplies human capital resources for national development. Given the importance of family well-being to the future of the country, a scientific study needs to be conducted to measure the level of well-being of families in Malaysia. Measuring family well-being is crucial as it can indirectly measure the impact of the implementation of national social and economic development policies on families and the extent to which the implemented policies and programmes are successful or otherwise. Hence, this study has identified suitable indicators that can provide information about the well-being of families in Malaysia. Subsequently, based on the identified indicators, a Family Well-Being Index (FWI) was developed to measure the current well-being of the family as well as to be used in policy formulation, planning for implementation of future research, the development of new programmes and services, and expansion of the existing programmes.
 
 
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2014 (2)




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Laporan Kajian Pekerja Indonesia di Bahagian Tawau, Sabah
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2014
Abstract:  In 2009, the National Population and Family Development (NPFDB) has implemented a Strategic Plan Review Second Population (KPSK-2) which takes consider relevant new policies and scenarios demographics and families as well as changes that occurred over a period of a decade and a half let go. One of the components found in this study is concerned with international migration. Results from KPSK-2 and several surveys specifically that has been done in Sabah, found the presence of foreign workers in that amount large in Sabah has resulted in stress to basic social services in particular from the aspect of health and education. In addition that, it also puts pressure as well security and political concerns. Accordingly, in 2010, Ministry of Women, Family and Development The community through NPFDB has run Study of Indonesian Workers in Tawau Division, Sabah to collect information simultaneously from various categories of respondents consisting of Indonesian workers, residents local and employers who use Indonesian employee services. The main objective of the study this is to collect sociodemographic information of Indonesian workers, entry factors, involvement by sector and type of occupation, the impact of admission on the local population and proposed approaches or measures that suitable for employee management and control Indonesia in this country. The fieldwork of the study has taken time for two weeks i.e. from 24 November to 6 December 2010. The location of this study is in the Tawau Division which covers the district Tawau, Kunak and Semporna. For the election sample of Indonesian workers and employers, framework sampling used in the study this is a list of employers who employ Indonesian workers derived from Department of Manpower of Tawau, Kunak and Semporna. Next, the sampling method on a quota basis and comfortably used to select both categories of respondents. Share selection of local population samples, methods comfortable sampling was used given the absence of a sampling frame locals who have employees Indonesia in their community. As a result, information from 896 Indonesian workers, 787 locals and 37 people employers have been successfully collected. Results of interviews conducted against Indonesian workers, found two main factors their migration to Sabah was for looking for more jobs and income height. In addition, migration factors not an economy like strategic geography, the presence of family or relatives and religious and cultural similarities as well affecting their migration here. Results of interviews with locals in turn found most of them to be of the opinion that the migration of Indonesian workers here is due to the position factor of Tawau which is located adjacent to Indonesia and following in the footsteps of relatives or friends who have or have worked here. Besides, it is also influenced by the unemployment rate high in their country of origin and opportunity more wide open work here.
 
 
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2011 (1)


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Kajian Penilaian Modul Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial (PKRS) dalam kalangan Pelatih PLKN
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2011
Abstract:  Adolescents are the future leaders of the country and have a huge influence on the social, economic and political situation of the country. However, with the presence of various social problems that plague teenagers today, it is feared that it will affect their future which in turn is detrimental to the country. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) has taken the initiative by developing the Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action Plan (PKRS) which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under this PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) is one (1) of the agencies that implement the program. In line with the implementation of this policy, the National Service Training Council has agreed with MWFCD's proposal for PKRS to be implemented in PLKN. Following that, NPFDB has implemented one (1) Pre and Post Test Study to trainees to assess the level of knowledge and perception on reproductive and social health before and after the teaching of this PKRS module is conducted. This study also aimed to examine the sexual and reproductive behaviors of trainees. This study was conducted in 2011 in a cross section on PLKN Trainees aged 17 years and above in selected National Service Training Camps in Malaysia using independent random sampling. The total sample required was 1,038 people. The calculation of this sample size is based on an estimated 31,200 PLKN trainees who are required to attend training using Confidence Interval (95%), Margin of Error (1.5%) and Prevalence of Having Sex Out of Wedlock Among Adolescents (6.5%), (Naing L, 2006). Questionnaires were developed according to the needs and objectives of the study. One-third of the questions of this questionnaire were adapted from an international study, namely the Youth Risk Surveillance Survey, 2011 but adapted according to the objectives of the study and the culture of the community in Malaysia. The method of questionnaire administration was self administered. The scope of the questionnaire covers three (3) domains namely demographic information, knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive and social health as well as adolescent sexual behavior. A total of 1,300 pieces of assessment forms (pre and post -test) were distributed during the first teaching session of the module. Of that number, only 1,063 forms were received for analysis. After the initial analysis was conducted, it was found that there were some questions that were not fully answered by the respondents. Therefore, the data analysis will vary according to the number of participants who answered for each section. In total, a total of 1,063 respondents were successfully covered in 13 training camps nationwide. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the respondents consisted of 57.8% male adolescents and 42.2% female. The majority of respondents were aged between 17 to 19 years (95.6%) with a mean age of around 18 years. Based on the ethnic composition, 66.7% are Malays, 15.3% Chinese, 4.2% Indians and 13.8% are other ethnicities including Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputera. Most respondents have SPM education (95.6%) and are unmarried (99.6%). The overall findings of the study can be summarized that the level of respondents' knowledge on reproductive and sexual health increased significantly (p <0.05) after undergoing the PKRS module with an increase in mean knowledge score of 7.04±2.2 (before undergoing the module) to 9.17±2.1. A total of 71.1% of respondents obtained a score of 9 out of 12 items (75.0%) and above after undergoing the module. There was a significant change in attitudes (p <0.05) on reproductive and social health after undergoing PKRS training. This indirectly shows that this PKRS module seeks to help respondents change their attitudes in a more positive direction. A total of 10.4% of respondents admitted to having had sex. The mean age of having sex for the first time is about 15 years. 45.5 percent of them had sex with more than one partner. Only 2.1 percent admitted to being sexually attracted to the same sex with 18.2% of them admitting to having had same -sex sex.
 
 

2010 (3)




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Kajian faktor-faktor penghalang wanita berkahwin menjalani ujian pap smear
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Cervical cancer is the second most dangerous threat to women that not only lead to a loss of pregnancy, but can even be life threatening. 12.9 percent of all cancer deaths among women are also due to this cancer. Unfortunately, 80% of women who are first diagnosed with cervical cancer are already at serious stage and cannot be treated properly even though cervical cancer screening programs such as Pap Smear have existed since 1943. Statistics released by the Ministry of Health Malaysia through the 2003 National Cancer Registry Report showed, even after the implementation of the Pap Smear program, the incidence rate of cervical cancer has increased where in 1990 the incidence rate was 13.3 per 100,000 women compared to 19.7 per 100,000 women in 2003. This illustrates that the Pap Smear program in Malaysia is not comprehensive and not practiced by those who need it which is women who have started sexual activity. Therefore, the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) has conducted a study in relation to cervical cancer screening or Pap Smear test. This study aimed to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history, women’s awareness on pap screening tests, women’s risk perceptions of cervical cancer, women’s attitudes towards the importance of Pap Smear testing and prevalence of Pap Smear screening test practice. This cross -sectional study was conducted in the Klang Valley, Melaka, Perak and Terengganu using purposive sampling. The total sample was 1000 people. The study population consisted of once married women aged between 20-65 years. This includes married women, widows and widowers. The conditions for rejecting the sample are ineligible women, such as unmarried women, non-Malaysian citizens and women who have had cervical cancer. The collection of research data is through interviews based on the text of the questionnaire provided. Respondents will be interviewed by interviewers who have been trained to obtain accurate information. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi-square test and t test. Therefore, based on the analysis that has been conducted, the prevalence of female Pap Smear test is 55.2 percent. Respondents showed a positive attitude when asked about the importance of Pap Smear test compared to other examinations, many of whom thought that this test was very important (92.7 percent). Only 4.2 percent considered the Pap Smear test not important and there were a few who could not provide certainty about its importance (3.1 percent). Not many can measure the risk they are facing to get cervical cancer as 377 (41.5 percent) people are unaware of the cancer risk they are facing. However, there were a total of 276 (30.4 percent) women who were confident that they were not at risk at all. Only 7.7 percent received a high risk of this cancer, moderate risk (5.6 percent) and low risk (14.9 percent).
 
 
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A Study on health status of youth in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  This study analyzed health screening of 22,840 youths, who were distributed equally by ethnicity and camp sessions. Based on the analysis, 21.6% of youths were underweight, 18.1% pre-obese and 10.3% obese, with 0.3% perceived having body image disorders. With regards to sexual and reproductive health issues, 39.6% admitted viewing pornographic materials, 28.5% practiced masturbation, 6.5% engaged in premarital sexual relationships, 5.5% had multiple partners and 1.6% had been involved in homosexual relationships. History of abortion was discovered by 0.5% of the respondents. Almost a quarter of the youths were smokers, while 8.7% had consumed alcohol and 1.4% admitted taking drugs. The study also revealed that 6.2% of respondents reported to have past involvement in bully and 14.1% in fight. About 7.1% of the respondents revealed they had been physically abused while 1.2% of them had been sexually abused. Mental health problems were noted in 27.5% of the youths, with depression in 9.8% of the youths, anxiety in 20.7% and suicidal ideation in 11.8%. Psycho-social problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior, physical/sexual abuse and mental health problems among youth are interrelated with common risk and protective factors. Management of psycho-social problems in youths should be holistic; looking into risk and protective factors. Programs and interventions should focus on strengthening of protective factors among youth such as family connectedness and religiosity.
 
 
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Kajian Pendapat Remaja dan Isu Sosial : mencari penyelesaian
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Introduction of Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action of Plan (PKRS) has been developed which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under the PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been given the mandate as the main agency in implementing the program. One of the programs is the Life Skills Program for teenagers which uses two (2) modules, namely the Cakna Diri Module (I’m In Control) and the Kesejahteraan Hidup Module. The purpose of this module developed is to improve adolescents' skills in aspects of reproductive health in order to avoid high-risk behaviors that lead to several problems such as premarital pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Therefore, an opinion poll was conducted to see the general view on social issues of adolescents, especially from the aspect of reproductive health and the implementation of the Life Skills Program for adolescents.
 
 

2006 (1)




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Tingkah laku seks di kalangan warga 45 tahun dan ke atas
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2006
Abstract:  An opinion survey on 'Sexual Behavior Among Citizens 45 Years and Above' which was first conducted by the Human Reproduction Division (BRM) was conducted in the Klang Valley area from February to June 2003. The 'Convenience Sampling' sampling method was used where respondents who meet certain criteria fill in the questionnaire themselves. A total of 473 respondents consisting of 50.1% Malays, Indians (26.6%) and Chinese (23.3%) where men (53.5%) outnumber than women (46.5%). The majority of respondents comprised the age group of 50-59 years (41.25%). From the 220 female respondents, only 7.3% took hormone replacement therapy. The results of the study found that the importance and satisfaction of sex decreases with age where it is more pronounced among women than men. The frequency of sexual intercourse is performed in the range of 4-8 times a month (46.3%). Although only 16.7% of respondents had sex-related problems, 70.9% of them did not know the source of help and treatment for their problems. Among those who received treatment, 56.4% chose to seek modern treatment. 55.7% of respondents with sexual problems have at least one chronic disease. A total of 85.6% disagreed and looked for another partner as a way out of sex -related problems. Expectations for better sex in the future are still high at 69.1%. In conclusion, for middle-aged and above despite the declining importance of sexual intercourse, their right to access to knowledge and services related to sexual problems needs to be addressed immediately, especially by medical practitioners, especially the Human Reproduction Division and LPPKN in general. A systematic and ‘gender-sensitive’ approach can help overcome the problem of family institutional breakdown and problems related to incest.
 
 
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2004 (4)




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Implementation of the ICPD-PoA in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2004
Abstract:  The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 was regarded as a landmark in the population and development field. At this conference,179 countries,including Malaysia,adopted a 20-year Programme of Action(PoA).The ICPD-PoA calls for empowering of women and providing them with more choices through access to education and health services and promoting skill development and employment.The PoA includes goals in regard to education, especially for girls, and for further reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality levels. It also addresses issues relating population;the environment and consumption patterns; the family; internal and international migration; prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic; information,education and communication;and research and development.This report assesses the progress made by Malaysia in the implementation of ICPD-PoA and in meeting the Millennium Development goals (MDGs). It provides a situational analysis of the population,development,reproductive health and gender related issues, and discusses the various policies and programmes implemented to achieve the objectives of ICPD-PoA. It also emerging challenges and opportunities and put forth some recommended strategies to further strengthen ICPD-PoA implementation in Malaysia.
 
 
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2003 (1)




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Wanita hari ini: anak atau kerjaya 2002-2003
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2003
Abstract:  The participation of women in the labor force has increased from 37.0 percent in 1971 to 42.0 percent in 1991 and 46.9 percent in 2001. This increase is directly not only increase the number of women working but working spouses. The growing number of working couples has raised some challenges that need to be addressed wisely. Among these challenges is the increasing needs of child care services, maid and time management in discharging its responsibilities as a wife, mother and employee, and that is as important as the son and daughter-in-law for who still have parents and parent-in-law. This study is to explore the extent to which women today give preference between career and family, whether they want to increase the number of children or career development, and the factors that influence their choice. The study sample includes 2.909 women working in the public and private sectors who are 40 years and under, are married and have at least one child aged under 13 years. Overall, the mean number of children a woman is owned by a total of 2.4 people. Meanwhile, the mean ideal number of children who think they are up to 4 people. Nearly 14.0 percent of working couples in conflict between family and career. Due to child care problems, 8.3 percent of women had to quit work and 7.8 per cent had to take leave without pay. New initiatives and implemented if there is a desire to boost the female employees to increase the number of children or not, such as subsidized child care costs, while the policy stops working women, child care services in the workplace, child care services in the area of residence, and flexible working hours.
 
 
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2001 (1)




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:
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Kajian Penduduk dan Keluarga Setinggan di Lima Bandar Utama, Semenanjung Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2001
Abstract:  This study is to collect information on the population and squatter families from the demographic and socio-economic aspects. A total of 1.423 dwellings in slum areas has been carried out censorship. Of this amount, a total of 7.310 identified household members and 1,308 ever married women aged 15 to 49 years were selected. The study was conducted in five major cities in Peninsular Malaysia, namely, Ipoh, Sungai Petani, Petaling Jaya, Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru. The study covers the demographic information, housing and environmental conditions, the labor force participation, aspects of migration and relocation, neighborhood issues and community life, family interaction and communication between family members, reproductive health and health practices, child care issues, aspirations / hope respondents about their children's education in the future, and interaction respondent / husband with parents.
 
 
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1999 (2)




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:
 4
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Profil keluarga/Family profile Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1999
Abstract:  The book on Family Profile: Findings of studies contains information from studies done by NPFDB namely Population and Family Survey,1984 and 1994, The socio-Economic effects of population Ageing in Malaysia,1986, Malaysian Family life Survey 1988, Sub-National District population Survey (Kajian Penduduk Daerah) 1992. A survey on the Effects of Socio-Economic Development on Family and Gender Relations in Kuala Lumpur,1995, Adolescents Social Behaviour in Malaysia 1994/95, Adolescents Social Behaviour 1993 and Terengganu, 1995 and Adolescents Reproductive Health and Sexual Behaviour in Malaysia, 1994/95.The findings of these studies have been analysed and arranged according to the changing patterns and trends that have occurred to families since 1986. Some of these studies are representative of Peninsular Malaysia while others are confined only to certain areas of the Peninsular. Nevertheless, the description of situations derived from these findings are consistent and reliable.
 
 
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1998 (3)




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:
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Study on childcare & parenting styles among working parents in Peninsular Malaysia 1998
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1998
Abstract:  The Study on Childcare and Parenting Styles among working Parents in Malaysia is one of the three research issues on the family that has been identified by the Ministry of National Unity and Social Development under the "Pelan Induk Tindakan Sosial (PINTAS)". This survey is timely in view of the many challenges faced by Malaysian families who have been affected directly or indirectly by modernisation, urbanisation and industrialisation as a result of socio-economic development. Female labour force participation has increased from 37 per cent in 1970 to 42 per cent in 1991 and is expected to reach 52 per cent by year 2000. The objectives of the study were: • To study the current situation in childcare arrangements among working parents and to elicit suggestions from them regarding improvements in childcare. • To study parenting styles among working parents and to make recommendations for better parenting practices. • To use findings from the study as an input towards designing strategies and programs for the betterment of families. • To obtain indicators on childcare and parenting for the monitoring of goals and targets in the National Plan of Action on Children.
 
 
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1996 (2)




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:
 9
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The National Study on reproductive health and sexuality of adolescents in Malaysia 1994/1995
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1996
Abstract:  The National Study on Reproductive Health and Sexuality of Adolescents in Malaysia was initiated with the aim of formulating a National Programme on Reproductive Health for Adolescents. The specific objectives of the study are: i. to establish the status of the knowledge, attitude and practice of adolescents with regard to sexual and reproductive health, ii. to identify the constraints that adolescents face in seeking information and service relating to sexual and reproductive health, iii. to obtain the participation of adolescents in the design and implementation of programmes and activities for their own welfare. The single most expected outcome of the Study on Reproductive Health and Sexuality of Adolescents in Malaysia is a Cabinet memorandum which will propose appropriate policy and programme changes for the promotion and maintenance of optimal reproductive health among Malaysian adolescents geared towards the year 2020. This Memorandum will serve as a vital national reference and benchmark for evaluating future trends and patterns. It will be the basis for the reorientation of values, attitudes and approaches for the management of sexuality and reproductive health of adolescents in the country.
 
 
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Laporan kajian kekeluargaan dan pelajar sekolah menengah Semenanjung Malaysia 1994/95
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1996
Abstract:  Disciplinary problems among the student are the hot issue that being discuss in our community nowadays. If this problem is not prevented immediately, misbehaviour or disciplinary cases will continue to increase and is about to expose students to more misbehaviour such as theft, blackmail, molesting, involved in triad ,drug addiction and so on. Many discussions about student discipline problems was held, either by the related agencies, associations, schools, parent or communities. According to the report of the Ministry of Education, several key factors are identified as the main cause of disciplinary problems such as school climate less attractive, psychological and familial factors. Detailed and comprehensive study should be conducted to identify family factors that may contribute to or cause students to behave as such. Consequently,a Family Studies and Student Discipline covering high school student and parent / guardian has been carried out in Peninsular Malaysia by the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) in collaboration with the School Division, Ministry of Education and the State Education Departments
 
 
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1992 (3)


1979 (2)


No File
Study on migration: study of four major cities in Peninsular Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Family Planning Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Family Planning Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1979
Abstract:  This study aims at providing some information about the origin of the migrants in terms of place of birth and previous residence and reason for making the moves. The problem of excessive population growth rate in the metropolitan areas of less developed countries has been a major area of concern. In Peninsular Malaysia, the average annual population growth rate in urban areas during the 1970-1980 period was 4.7 per cent while in the rural areas it was only 0.9 per cent. This difference was due not only to differences in rates of natural increase but mainly because of internal migration. Such trends in migration will have significant demographic and socio-economic effects on both the rural and urban areas. Studies on internal migration in Malaysia have focus primarily on the analysis of levels and trends, using data available from population census. Information obtained from such data are rather limited and thus sample surveys have been conducted to gather detailed information regarding reasons for migration, migrants characteristics, migration related decision-making process and post-migration adaptation.
 
 

1978 (2)


1977 (3)