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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Health"

Act & Policy (3)




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Dasar dan Pelan Tindakan Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial Kebangsaan (PEKERTI) 2022-2025
Item Type: Act & Policy
Author: 
Kementerian Pembangunan Wanita, Keluarga dan Masyarakat, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  08/09/2022
Abstract:  This new PEKERTI policy is applicable to every individual regardless of age and gender and takes into account ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. Focus will be given to producing a healthy population in terms of reproductive and sexual health based on high moral values and practicing responsible behavior and mutual respect for each other. This PEKERTI policy has been streamlined to achieve 5 objectives which are to (i) increase the awareness of Malaysians regarding the importance of reproductive and social health education, (ii) develop evidence-based reproductive and social health education programs, (iii) develop human expertise and modernity in aspects reproductive and social health education, (iv) carry out research in aspects of reproductive and social health education and (v) ensure programs and services under this policy are continuously monitored and evaluated. In order to achieve these 5 objectives that have been set, 5 Cores have been identified as policy implementation machinery namely (i) Advocacy, Promotion and Prevention, (ii) Comprehensive Reproductive and Social Health Education Covering All Age Levels, (iii) Human Capital and other Resources for Reproductive and Social Health education, (iv) Research and Development and (v) Monitoring and Evaluation.
 
 
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Dasar & Pelan Tindakan Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif & Sosial Kebangsaan
Item Type: Act & Policy
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  06/11/2009
Abstract:  The National Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy that applies to all walks of life regardless of age, to increase the knowledge on sexual reproductive health among Malaysia and to encourage them to have a positive attitudes towards reproductive and social services. Earlier it was known as PKRS Policy. However, in 2012, the Policy and Action Plan for National Reproductive and Social Health Education was known as PEKERTI Policy. Reproductive and social health education is fundamental to the development of strong and healthy human development, honorable and mutual respect. The policy takes into account the diversity of religion, culture and values of life in Malaysia. Following the approval of the Parliament of Malaysia on the Policy and Action Plan for National Reproductive and Social Health Education (PEKERTI) in 2009, LPPKN through KPWKM has implemented the PEKERTI Programme at the kafe@TEEN Adolescent Centres, Program Khidmat Latihan Negara (PLKN), and schools.
 
 
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Article (19)




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Konseptual kualiti hidup dalam konteks golongan pesara di Malaysia
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Godfrey, Amirah Saliha and
Ibrahim, Dzurizah and
Md Shah, Jalihah and
Kanyo, Nor Ina and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  Quality of life carries a more complex meaning in explaining the context of an individual's life status, whether they are satisfied and happy with their living conditions or not. The phenomenon of quality of life can be measured by looking at indicators in various aspects whether monetary or non-monetary. This study was conducted to examine what the meaning of quality of life is in the context of retirees in Malaysia. In addition, this study was also conducted to see what indicators affect the quality of life, especially for retirees in Malaysia. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, a qualitative method was used, particularly working on reading sources from previous studies. The sources were screened through Scopus access. The main findings of this study found that there are various indicators that affect the quality of life retirees in Malaysia and can be divided into two categories, namely monetary which consists of economic indicators, and residence. While non-monetary consists of indicators of social support, health and family life. Therefore, this study will analyze and conceptually describe the quality of life of the retirees in Malaysia in a more comprehensive way through research on national policies and policies, as well as see a brief comparison with other countries.
 
 
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Impak positif daripada pandemik covid-19 kepada institusi kekeluargaan
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Abdullah, Noor Fiteri and
Mukhtar, Masnisah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  The world was shocked by the presence of the Covid-19 pandemic which changed the norms of human life from the usual. This effect also felt by every family institution which is the basic group in a community. The routine in family life that has become a habit had to be changed because of it. Previous studies have found that there are various negative or positive impacts from this epidemic. This article places special emphasis on the positive impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on family institutions. The study is exploratory because it is a new issue with limited resources. The study literature is based on references obtained from reading sources related to the Covid-19 pandemic and the concept of new norms for family institutions. In addition to that, independent observation and experience are also the results of the study. The focus of the positive impact of this pandemic on family institutions is seen from a spiritual perspective, habits and attitudes. The result of this writing found that there are several lessons referring to the positive impact useful to be used as a reference or guide in the future. The concept of understanding and returning to religious teachings is the key to getting a positive impact from any form of calamity or disaster.
 
 
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Impak covid-19 terhadap kelestarian sosioekonomi masyarakat pedalaman di Malaysia: kajian kes Daerah Segamat Johor
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Kamarudin, Khairul Hisyam and
Hassan@Mohammad, Asan Ali Golam and
Rashid, Mohamad Fadhli and
Loganathan, Nanthakumar and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  The implementation of the Movement Control Order (MCO) by the government to control internal and cross-border movement of districts and/or states has been accepted and adapted to become the new norm in controlling the spread of infection, especially involving vulnerable community groups. But at the same time, this restriction of movement also disrupt various activities in the economic sector which is the heart of community life. Since there is a lack of specific research to find out the impact of Covid-19 on the socioeconomic sustainability and needs of the rural community, a case study and field survey was conducted invoving 20 respondents/household heads (KIR) in Felda Pemanis 1, Segamat district, Johor on 13-14 September 2021. The findings show the majority respondents are senior citizens who belong to a vulnerable and high-risk group.
 
 
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Development of a high-energy nutrient-dense meal as supplementary functional food for improving problem of stunted and under-nourished children
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Muhamad, Isa Idayu and
Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz and
Mohd Jusoh, Yanti Maslina and
Pa'e, Norhayati and
Khair, Zulkifli and
Abdul Majid, Hairudin and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  Poverty, obesity and lifestyles are the most associated factors of vitamin D deficiency among urban-living children in Malaysia. Vitamin D is necessary for calcium absorption from food to ensure healthy bones and teeth. Vitamin D deficiency can cause soft and brittle bones disease known as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Based on previous research, lack of nutritional knowledge among parents can contribute to nutrition deficiencies in children. To overcome this issue, nutritional education and awareness campaign among parents are needed. Besides campaign, the development of supplementary functional food which can provide crucial nutrients and energy that can assist in brain and body growth seems beneficial.
 
 
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Kemiskinan haid: krisis kesihatan awam yang perlu diakhiri
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Mohd Tohit, Nor Faiza and
Syed Hussiin, Sh Fatimah AlZahrah and
Sulaiman, Szariannie and
Rokis, Rohaiza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  Menstrual poverty is a situation when individual face difficulties in obtaining sanitary napkins (pads) or tampons due to financial constraints. It also refers to the lack or absence of sanitation facilities for managing menstruation such as no water supply or no proper waste disposal (sanitary pad) and no privacy to manage menstruation. In addition, lack of knowledge about menstruation and its management is another component of ‘menstrual poverty’. Awareness about ‘menstrual poverty’ needs to be created among the community and other stakeholders such as authorities associated with family and community institutions as well as volunteer organizations. Affected individuals also need to be empowered to speak out about the issues they face. With the pooling of resources and action from all stakeholders, this issue of ‘menstrual poverty’ can be addressed.
 
 
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Differentials in sexual and reproductive health knowledge among East Malaysian adolescents
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Awang, Halimah and
Low, Wah Yun and
Wen, Tin Tong and
Lih, Yoong Tang and
Whye, Lin Cheah and
Helen, Benedict Lasimbang and
Mohd Hassan, Hamizah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2019
Abstract:  The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of East Malaysian adolescents on sexual and reproductive health issues. Data were collected in March–July 2015 from 2858 adolescents aged 13–18 years from selected East Malaysian secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Twelve items relating to sexual and reproductive health were used to measure respondents’ knowledge based on their responses ‘True’, ‘False’ or ‘Don’t know’, with the proportion of correct answers being the variable of interest. Cronbach’s alpha for the twelve items was 0.761 and the mean knowledge score was 6.8. While the majority of the respondents knew that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex with a man and that HIV and AIDS can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, knowledge about Malaysia’s abortion laws, that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex only once and that people with sexually transmitted infections may look healthy was poor. Older respondents and those from urban schools reported significantly higher knowledge than younger respondents and those from rural schools, respectively. More emphasis should be given in schools to the specific topics for which low levels of sexual and reproductive health knowledge were found, with greater attention being given to younger adolescents and those in rural areas.
 
 


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A role for cholesterol synthesized de novo by human umbilical cord
Item Type: Article
Author: 
A, Loganath and
R., Gunasegaram and
K.L., Peh and
P.C.T., Chew and
S.S., Ratnam and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  We have previously shown that the human umbilical cord in-vitro possess the ability to synthesize isocaproic acid and presumbly pregnenolone from cholesterol. Here, we examined the ability of the cord to synthesize cholesterol from acetate. Homogenates of umbilical cord (36-41 weeks gestation)obtained following spontaneous vaginal delivery from uncomplicated pregnancies (age 22-31 years) were incubated with [2-14C] acetate. Using the reverse-isotope dilution procedure, cholesterol was isolated and characterized as [14C] cholesterol acetate. Confirmation of identity of newly synthesized cholesterol was obtained after recrystallisation with added non-radioactive cholesterol acetate as standard. The rate of 14C incorporation is small but definite. The results indicate that the homogenates of human term umbilical cord contain the enzymes responsible for the conversion of [2-14C] acetate to [14C] cholesterol. It is suggested that cholesterol synthesized de novo can serve as a percursor for progesterone synthesis in-vivo.
 
 
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Clinical evaluation of Buserelin, a GnRH analogue in the management of moderate to severe pelvic endometriosis
Item Type: Article
Author: 
M.T.M., Ismail and
H.A., Wadood and
M., Azhar and
Arshat, Hamid and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  A local study, a part of a multinasional and multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of Buserelin was carried out for the treatment of pelvic endometriosis using a standard protocol. 20 women diagnosed to have moderate to severe endometriosis by laparoscopy were recruited. The women were given 900 micrograms Buserelin acetate daily by intranasal spray for a fixed period of 6 months. Baseline hormonal and biochemical parameters were taken prior to treatment and the parameters were repeated during each follow-up at weekly and monthly intervals. In addition, changes in symptoms were monitored. A second look laparoscopy was performed at completion of therapy and patients were followed up for a further 6 months. There was 100 percent suppression of oestradiol levels during the 6 months treatment period. An improvement of implants according to AFS classification occured in all patients. One patient discontinued because of side effects. Restoration of cycles after completion of therapy occured within 7 weeks. There were 7 pregnancies (64%) in the first 6 months after treatment for those wanting pregnancies. During therapy, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain and dyspareunia improved considerably. Buserelin was proven to be effective in the management of pelvic endometriosis and is well tolerated and safe.
 
 
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Book (4)


Book Section (11)




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Peranan, tahap kesejahteraan, cabaran dan persediaan golongan wanita dalam menghadapi situasi pandemik covid-19 di Malaysia
Item Type: Book Section
Author: 
Omar, Nor Ezdianie and
Abdullah, Muhamad Noh and
Abdul Razak, Ahmad Rasyidee and
Mohammad Fuzi, Nur Ashikin and
Author: 
Editor: 
Musa, Nurhafilah and
Husin, Asmak and
Year:  00/06/2023
Abstract:  Towards post COVID-19, most of the daily routines of Malaysian women's life have changed. The change in routine includes the management of household affairs, work routine to work from home (work from home) and socializing routine. As a result, society, especially women, is seen as increasingly depressed due to the loss of sources of income, limited involvement in outdoor activities and problems in balancing work and family time. Aware of this situation, the National Population and Family Development Board Malaysia (NPFDB) has taken the initiative to conduct a series of public opinion surveys throughout 2020 and 2021. This study aims to explore the role, level of well-being, challenges and preparations of women in facing the pandemic situation COVID-19 in Malaysia. This study is an online survey study. The findings of this study are a reflection of the current situation of society and family institutions in Malaysia in facing several new waves during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of the survey show that women are more affected than men, but the level of well-being of women in Malaysia is seen to be still at a satisfactory level. In addition, the results of the study also found that women stated that they are faced with various issues and challenges especially for those who are married. Issues of family management, children's education at home and more flexible working hours should be highlighted for consideration by the Government. It is hoped that various initiatives and development plans related to women can be planned in addition to strengthening existing policies towards achieving the aspiration of "Building a CIVIL Malaysia". In general, the chapters in this book contribute to knowledge related to the current situation of women in facing the new normal life. While in particular, the chapters in this book contribute to knowledge related to the role, well-being, challenges and preparation of Malaysian women in facing the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic.
 
 
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A process model for stakeholder engagement and management for the Rebung cancer early cancer diagnosis pilot project for an underserved urban population in Selangor, Malaysia
Item Type: Book Section
Author: 
Taib, Nur Aishah and
Sa'at, Hamizah and
M. Lothfi, Nurhyikmah and
Lee, Yew Kong and
Lai, Suat Yan and
Jamaris, Suniza and
Abdul Hadi, Haireen and
Karim, Mohamad Ershadul and
Munisamy, Murallitharan and
McCarthy, Sylvia and
Chow, Suet Yin and
Ayadurai, Vickneswari and
Yaacob, Siti Sara and
Asis, Harirotul Hamrok and
Mat Arifin, Faizal and
Mustapha, Wan Hilya Munira and
Ibrahim Tamin, Saleha and
Mohd Said, Zakiah and
Mustapha, Feisul and
Author: 
Editor: 
Tey, Nai Peng and
Lai, Siow Li and
Tengku Razif, Tengku Aira and
Palil, Mohd Rizal and
Imam Supaat, Dina and
Year:  00/00/2022
Abstract:  A cancer control plan in Malaysia has been published since 2008, however, the stage at diagnosis for most cancers in Malaysia remains advanced, despite multiple efforts from many sectors. Situational awareness is critical in implementing projects, especially in the B40 in the community; REBUNG (Reducing Barriers in Cancer Early Diagnosis in Urban B40 Group) is a multi-sectoral complex intervention that studies a community and the processes to access early cancer diagnosis. Thus, this study aims to map out the stakeholders in implementing a cancer control program in a single-site urban poor pilot community in Taman Medan, Petaling Jaya.
 
 
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Pengukuhan capaian vaksinasi HPV melalui perkhidmatan di Klinik Nur Sejahtera LPPKN: Suatu gambaran umum
Item Type: Book Section
Author: 
Mohd Yussof, Mohd Azizuddin and
Baharum, Nurul Izzah and
Abdul Razak, Ahmad Rasyidee and
Author: 
Editor: 
Tey, Nai Peng and
Low, Sarinah and
Awang, Halimah and
Lai, Siow Li and
Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana and
Ishak, Nur Annizah and
Mohd Kamil, Nurul Liyana and
Soon, Siew Voon and
Yong, Sook Lu and
Tengku Razif, Tengku Aira and
Shiau, Yun Chong and
Palil, Mohd Rizal and
Year:  01/12/2021
Abstract:  In Malaysia, Cervical Cancer remains among the top three most common cancers among women aged 15 to 44 years. Although the Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH) has developed the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program since 2007, the level of vaccination reach involving target groups in the country is still at a moderate level and not yet comprehensive. In support of efforts to ensure women’s reproductive health and well-being, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB), an agency under the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development has implemented an HPV vaccination program through Klinik Nur Sejahtera (KNS) nationwide.
 
 
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Conference or Workshop Item (17)




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Peranan, tahap kesejahteraan, cabaran dan persediaan golongan wanita dalam menghadapi situasi pandemik Covid-19 di Malaysia: Hasil penemuan siri kajian tinjauan pendapat umum LPPKN
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Abdul Razak, Ahmad Rasyidee and
Abdullah, Muhamad Noh and
Mohammad Fuzi, Nur Ashikin and
Omar, Nor Ezdianie and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  26/02/2022
Abstract:  Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the country since early 2020, the economy and community life have been severely affected. The increase in the number of daily cases as a result of several new waves of COVID-19 has also prompted the Government to implement a series of Movement Control Orders (MCO) nationwide. As a result, society, especially women, are seen to be increasingly stressed due to the loss of sources of income, limited involvement in outdoor activities and problems in balancing between work and family hours. Aware of this situation, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has taken the initiative to conduct a series of public opinion polls throughout 2020 and 2021. This study aims to explore the role, level of well -being, challenges and preparation of women in facing pandemic situations. COVID-19 in Malaysia. This study is an online survey study. The findings of this study are a reflection of the current situation of society and family institutions in the face of the new wave of COVID-19. The results of a survey that focused on women showed that women were more affected than men. Although the level of well -being of women in the country is still at a satisfactory level, various issues and challenges are faced especially for those who are married. Issues of family management, children's education at home and more flexible working hours should be highlighted for consideration by the Government. It is hoped that various initiatives and development plans related to women can be planned as well as further strengthen the existing policies towards achieving the aspirations of the Malaysian Family. In general, this paper contributes to the knowledge related to the current situation of women in the face of new normative life. While in particular, this paper contributes to knowledge related to the role, well-being, challenges and preparation of women in facing the COVID-19 pandemic situation.
 
 
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An evaluation of eating behavior, psychosocial status and body mass index among Malaysian adolescents
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ahmad Sabki, Zuraida and
Rusdu, Mohd Basri and
Ho, Chok Eng and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  This study is an attempt to produce an abbreviated Malay version of Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (MWALI), as an evaluation tool to assess eating and related bio-psychosocial factors among adolescents attending kafe@TEEN, Kuala Lumpur. The MWALI was translated ‘forward–backward’ from English to Malay and then administered to 135 adolescents to assess the factor construct of the eating behaviour and its relationships with the demographic profile, dysphoria, global self-esteem and body mass index (BMI). The exploratory factor analysis of the eating behaviour yielded five factors are Negative Emotion, Poor Impulse Control, Social Cues, Snacking and Early Meals in relation to over-eating which were significantly and positively correlated with BMI. Eating in response to Social Cues was negatively correlated with self-esteem, overeating at Early Meals was positively correlated with dysphoria. Female has significantly higher mean score of eating in response to Negative Emotion and eating in response to Social Cues. MWALI is appropriate for assessing eating behaviour and associated bio-psychosocial factors among overweight and obese adolescents in the primary care setting in Malaysia.
 
 
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Universal health coverage in Malaysia: issues and challenges
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ng, Chiu Wan and
Mohd Hairi, Noran Naqiah and
Ng, Chirk Jenn and
Kamarulzaman, Adeeba and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  Socioeconomic development in Malaysia, over the past few decades, has led to the improvement and expansion of the public healthcare system. This system has provided universal access to a low-priced package of comprehensive health care leading Malaysia to claim to have achieved universal health coverage (UHC). However, the Malaysian health landscape is changing rapidly. Provision of private care has grown especially in large urban towns, mainly in response to public demand. Thus far, private care has been predominantly bought and utilised by the rich but because of differentials in quality of care between the public and private sector, unabated expansion of the private health sector has the potential to adversely affect universal access to care. This effect may be accentuated in the coming years by demographic changes in the country specifically by the ageing of the population. This paper is intended to highlight challenges to UHC in Malaysia in the face of the changing health landscape in the country and to offer some suggestions as to how these challenges can be met.
 
 
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Kajian kesedaran dan pengetahuan orang awam mengenai infertiliti
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Shekh Abdullah, Faezah and
Harun, Rosliah and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  The infertility rate in Malaysia is estimated around 10 to 15 %. World Health Organization has classified infertility as a disease that needs attention as early as possible. It is one of the factors that contribute to decreasing total fertility rate. Public misunderstanding regarding infertility may affect on how they handle this issue. People always take this issue lightly since it is not a life-threatening disease, unlike heart attack, diabetes and cancer. The Bertarelli Foundation Scientific Board (1999) had found that infertility awareness was still low in a few countries in Europe, such as Belgium, Italy, France, Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom. Knowledge on infertility is very crucial because it helps couples to prepare when they are having difficulty in conceiving. The objective of this study was to identify our local people awareness and knowledge on infertility issues as very few studies have been done in Malaysia.
 
 
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Customer retention: a case study of LPPKN clinical services
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Sellamuthu, Rajen and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  This is a descriptive study intended to identify the main factors which contribute to the customer retention among the “Clinical Clients” of National Population and Family Development Board or LPPKN. The study focused on three variables to check on the level of influence, affect and effect to the process of customer retention. Those variables are service branding, perceived value and service quality. The study also covered the impact and influence of the demographic element to the service branding, perceived value and service quality in the process of customer retention. This study was conducted at the LPPKN Clinics in Klang Valley and Seremban. Understanding and fulfilling the customers need will contribute to retaining existing customers and reduce the customer switching intentions. The research findings show there is a positive relationship between perceived value and service quality with customer retention. Nevertheless relationship between service branding and customer retention is not supported for the LPPKN clinical setting. Analysis on the demographic factor showed that, it has a significant influence in regard to service branding, perceived value, services quality and customer retention. The output of the study will be helpful to managers and marketers of the clinical service to understand the customer needs, priority and expectations. Furthermore the findings of the research will enable the managers and policy makers to take necessary actions in their marketing and operational planning to stay competitive and maintain a stable income for a long term. This study will also help LPPKN Clinics to improve service quality, increase number of clinical clients, facilitate the process of customer retention and in long term improve financial performance.
 
 
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Community based program in Ethiopia: from CBD to massive, state-run health extension program
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Haile, Genet Mengistu and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The Family Guidance Association of Ethiopia (FGAE) pioneered a Community-based FP Distribution [CBD] program in Ethiopia in 1991. The CBD agents were selected by the community members through prior set selection criteria including interest and willingness to volunteer for community work and sufficient knowledge about the socio-economic and cultural context of the community. The CBD program was very widely replicated by many other institutions as a low cost, effective strategy to increase access to modern contraceptive services in under-served communities. Considering the challenges related to distance and access to fixed health facilities among women with high unmet needs and the lessons drawn from project based success stories of the CBD programs, the government of Ethiopia initiated the Health Extension Program (HEP) in 2003 to accelerate utilization of primary health care services in rural communities. The HEP is implemented by trained health extension workers or practitioners at the community level with strong focus on health promotion and disease prevention and empowering community members to make decisions and take actions on their own health. The Health Extension Workers (HEW) were recruited from the community among those who completed high school and trained for one year. Currently, two female HEWs are assigned at each kebele (the lowest administrative unit) and to implement a package of 16 primary health care services including FP and maternal health. A total of about 35,000 rural HEWs and 4,800 urban Health Extension Professionals [Graduate Nurses] are deployed by MoH as government employees throughout the country. The program has created a better opportunity, particularly for rural women and young people to access health services including FP/RH.
 
 
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Kajian kesihatan reproduktif & seksual remaja
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Ahmad, Noor Ani and
Aris, Tahir and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The increase in reproductive and social health issues among adolescents has been hotly debated both nationally and internationally. Every day, Malaysians are presented with news on adolescent misconduct, especially those involving cases of abortion and out -of -wedlock pregnancies. Therefore, a specific study to look at the level of reproductive and sexual health of adolescents and the factors that influence it was conducted based on the results of the national level of adolescent health research. Methodology this cross -sectional study was conducted in 2010 using secondary data from the Adolescent Health Screening Form (BSSK/R/1/2008) which was filled by trainees of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) in 80 NSTP camps throughout the country. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi -square test and logistic regression using SPSS software. The parameters studied included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity and level of education) and social characteristics (risky behavior, history of abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse, religion, and family relationships). While there are nine (9) SRH issues that were studied, namely masturbation, watching pornography, extramarital sex, multi -partner sex, STIs, homosexual tendencies, homosexual relationships, pregnancy and abortion. Results A total of 23,231 data were analyzed. Of these, a total of 22,750 respondents aged 18-24 years were screened for the purpose of study analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the issue of watching and reading pornographic material among adolescents recorded the highest percentage (39.5%) followed by masturbation (28.5%) and extramarital sex (6.5%). All socio -demographic factors studied had a significant relationship with extramarital sex, homosexual predisposition and abortion (p <0.05). Risk factors for extramarital sex are the age group of 20-24 years (OR = 2.710, SK95% 1.967, 3.759), risky behavior (OR = 30.495 SK95% 19.683, 47.427), involvement in substance abuse (OR = 12.33 SK95% 8,051, 18,891), anti-social (OR = 2,615 SK95% 2,206, 3,100) and ever abused (OR = 1,726 SK95% 1,389, 2,145). While the appreciation of religion is a protective factor for adolescents where the study found that adolescents who appreciate religion are twice as likely to have sex compared to adolescents who do not appreciate religion. There is no evidence to suggest that familial relationship variables influence adolescents to have sex. Conclusion overall it can be concluded that adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues need to be given serious attention. This is because the results of the study show that the trend of extramarital sex among adolescents which is a key indicator of the level of adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues has increased from 2.2% in 2004 (MPFS-4) to 6.5% in 2010. Therefore, multisectoral cooperation programs are needed to address this issue. The implementation of intervention programs should also be focused on high-risk adolescents such as having risky behaviors, anti-social and involved in cases of substance abuse. The planning and preparation of the program must also take into account the concepts and teachings of religion practiced in Malaysia through an approach that can be accepted by adolescents. Further studies need to be conducted more extensively taking into account other factors that have yet to be explored.
 
 
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Country Statement (1)




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The 56th Session of The Commission On Population And Development, United Nations New York, 10-14 April 2023
Item Type: Country Statement
Author: 
Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  11/04/2023
Abstract:  Education is a longstanding right enshrined in human rights and developmental instruments, including in the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The ICPD Plan of Action also recognizes the key role of education in sustainable development, as well as the responsibilities of different stakeholders, particularly parents, in this regard. Investments in education systems are of utmost importance for population growth, as it empowers people to lead better, healthier and sustainable lives. For Malaysia, the education system serves as a fundamental component in our quest to be a developed nation, and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Strengthening of human capital through education is a priority to Malaysia, with the Government providing free education to citizens up to secondary level.
 
 
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Infographic (8)


Module (3)




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Modul My Therapeutic Family: Family Psychological First Aid
Item Type: Module
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2023
Abstract:  INTRODUCTION:- KASIH Keluarga Ceria Program is a comprehensive initiative aimed to bolster the family institution in Malaysia, which is a cornerstone of national well-being. This program comprises two modules, namely: i. Psychoeducation Module ii. Support Group "My Therapeutic Family" Module These modules were based on the Family Psychological First Aid (F-PFA) model, jointly developed by NPFDB and Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). The model integrated fundamental family dynamics, functional family systems, and Psychological First Aid principles recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The Support Group "My Therapeutic Family" Module complements the Psychoeducation Module by focusing on maintenance, particularly in the post-intervention phase, addressing crisis management within the family unit. The objectives of this program are: 1. Enhance parents' awareness regarding mental health and adaptive skills; 2. Educate parents with knowledge of Family Psychological First Aid (F-PFA); 3. Empower parents with referral skills for psychological assistance; 4. Establish support groups platform for parents; and 5. Forge intelligent collaborative network between NGOs, agencies, and referral experts.
 
 
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Modul Cakna Diri Lelaki Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduksi dan Seksual Untuk Remaja Lelaki Berumur 16-24 Tahun
Item Type: Module
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2018
Abstract:  The Sexual and Reproductive Health Module for boys and young men age 16 to 24 years was developed to address sexual and reproductive health as well as social issues for boys and young men. It is also aim to create awareness on the importance of reproductive health and social education as well as gender equality for future well-being. This module is divided into two (2) main target groups i.e. general adolescents (Module A) and most-at-risk adolescents (Module B). The main components of Module A includes topics on adolescent growth, developmental, health, psychosocial - 3R (Respect, Relationship and Responsibility), laws and regulations, drugs and substance abuse. Module B covers topics on risky social behaviors, risky sexual behaviors and teen pregnancy. This module is developed as an interactive form using various learning methods such as role play, sketches, group work and discussions to attract participation of boys and young men.
 
 
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Newsletter (5)




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Family well being & the emergence of global pandemic
Item Type: Newsletter
Author: 
Author: 
Editor: 
Mahpul, Irwan Nadzif and
Mohammad, Ahmad Hashimi and
Mazalan, Mohd Firdaus and
Abdul Razak, Ahmad Rasyidee and
Mohammad Fuzi, Nur Ashikin and
Sukarno, Nur Syafira and
Year:  00/00/2021
Abstract:  National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has introduced a Family Well-Being Index (FWBI) to specifically measure the well-being of families in Malaysia. The third series of the FWBI was conducted in 2019, prior to pandemic which start hitting the globe at the end of year. The FWBI 2019 reached a new highest score of 7.72 out of a maximum scale of 10. Although the FWBI 2019 score is still at a moderate level, it has shown an increase of 0.39 points compared to previous 7.33 for FWBI 2016. The FWBI 2019 score is a reflection of the family well-being in the country before COVID-19 pandemic began. Since then, every aspect of our life have been aff¬ected and subsequently transform the way we work and doing things. In addition to hampering the economy, the pandemic has also impacting family institution as a whole.
 
 
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National experience in population matters: adolescents and youth
Item Type: Newsletter
Author: 
Author: 
Editor: 
Ismail, Siti Norlasiah and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Muda, Rozi and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Mazalan, Mohd. Firdaus and
Abdullah Daud, Noor Azizan and
Abdul Hamid, Azian and
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Adequate and accurate sexual and reproductive health information helps young people to make informed and responsible decisions. Howewer, cultural and religious sensitivities within the communities remain one of the major challenges in implementing reproductive health education for young people. Parents are still uncomfortable talking about reproductive health matters with their children ,leaving their children dependent upon information from their peers or other sources like the internet. The Government of Malaysia takes cognisance of the increasing importance of the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents and youth in Malaysia. Hence, the Government of Malaysia has put in place various policies and programmes to handle the sexual and reproductive health needs of the adolescents and youths. One of the main initiatives is the Healthy Programme without AIDS for Youth (PROSTAR). The Government of Malaysia also has established six youth-friendly adolescent centres known as kafe@TEEN to increase access to reproductive health information and services for young people aged 13 to 24 years.
 
 
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Report (1)




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Statistik data perkhidmatan perancang keluarga LPPKN tahun 2015-2019
Item Type: Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2022
Abstract:  National Population and Family Development Board Malaysia (NPFDB) have prepared a statistic report on family planning services at the NPFDB level according to the number of new recipients, type of contraceptive, state, age group, ethnicity, strata and employment status for 2015 to 2019. This report only consist new recipients, which is new clients who have not registered with any of family planning agency such as NPFDB, Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) and Federation of Reproductive Health Associations Malaysia (FRHAM). The breakdown of statistic report by type of contraceptive have included implant, injection, condom, pill, intrauterine device and non-modern methods. Meanwhile, the breakdown of family planning data by age have covered the range of 15 years to 49 years. The breakdown of data by ethnicity also have included Malay, Chinese, Indian, other bumiputera and other ethnicities. These statistic data were also have provided by strata (urban and rural), employment status (employed and unemployed) and education breakdown including college/ university, secondary school, primary school and non formal education.
 
 
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Research Report (18)




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Enhancing Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia.,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2023
Abstract:  Polycystic ovary syndrome or known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder and one of the main causes of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age, which is 15 to 49 years (Balen et al., 2016). The main characteristics of women with PCOS are ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries (Balen and Michelmore., 2002). This syndrome is associated with metabolic syndromes such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 1 (Barthemess and Naz., 2014) and arteriosclerosis (Orio et al., 2004). The general objective of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics, clinical and medical history, of PCOS sufferers as well as appropriate treatment methods among clients seeking fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. This study is an experimental, case control study involving female clients who come to seek fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. The chosen location is LPPKN Headquarters, Kuala Lumpur. Every female client who attends needs to meet the patient selection criteria, namely a Malaysian couple, trying to conceive for more than a year and aged between 25 to 38 years old. Every patient who faces subfertility problem is divided into two groups, namely PCOS and no PCOS. Patients who are eligible and agree to participate in the study have gone through at least five (5) series of appointments with medical officers and nurses. A total of 167 patients participated in this study with an average age of 30 years.
 
 
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Executive Summary: youth intervention study: best practices of youth intervention programmes in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2020
Abstract:  In the decades, Malaysia has undergone rapid economic, social and cultural changes which impacted not only the daily lives of its people but also their worldview and values. This is particularly so for young people, as excessive exposure to information from the social media, internet and pornography had inevitably influence their lifestyle and behaviour. The socio-cultural changes are likely associated with an increased rates of non-marital sexual activity, increased rates of sex partner change and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2005, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through NPFDB introduced the PEKERTI Programme to be implemented at KafeTEEN adolescents centres. The programme provides reproductive health services, counseling services and education and skill building to promote a healthy life and inculcate positive attitudes and moral values among young people.
 
 
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Kajian Pengesanan Mikrodelesi Kromosom Y dalam kalangan klien Infertiliti di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  The study "Microdelesi of Y Chromosome among NPFDB Infertility Clients" conducted by the Biomedical Unit, NFPDB is to identify infertility factors from a genetic aspect. Study samples were obtained from infertility patients referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory, NPFDB from 2003 to 2010. A total of 100 blood samples of clients diagnosed as azoospermia (48), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (24), oligozoospermia (15), severe oligozoospermia (6), Klinefelter Syndrome (3) and idiopathy (4) were performed Chromosome Analysis Tests to identify any abnormalities of the number and structure on the chromosome and subsequently Molecular Testing is performed to detect the microdeletion of the Y chromosome. Majority of ethnic groups involved in the study are Malays, which is 74 people (74%) followed by Chinese; nine (9) people (9%), Indians; seven (7) people (7%) and other ethnicities from Sabah and Sarawak as many as 10 people (10%) in the age range of 23 to 46 years.The chromosome analysis test results for the 100 samples were normal which is, 46, XY, no abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes were found. Results was found that 15 samples (15%) underwent Y chromosome microdeletion at the AZF locus in molecular test. From 15 samples, 10 samples were azoospermia, three (3) severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia samples and two (2) oligozoospermia samples. Each sample experienced deletion at different locus and there were samples that experienced multiple deletion which involved deletion of more than one factor locus (AZF).The most common AZF factors found to experience deletion were AZFc (73.33%) followed by AZFb (53.33%), AZFd (40%) and AZFa (13.33%). In conclusion, it was found that genetic factors are one of the causes of infertility problems among clients came for subfertility treatment. Looking at the importance of undergoing genetic screening testing at an early stage, it is recommended that this test be tested for men diagnosed with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia at the Subfertility Clinic, NPFDB. The information obtained has prognostic value and influences the medical therapy chosen to assist in the clinical management of the client and his descendant in the future.
 
 
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Effects of socio-demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors on semen quality of men attending the sub fertility clinic in National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Couples are considered infertile if they are unable to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sex. The impact of lifestyle and environment on human fertility may vary depending on aetiology, demographic characteristics, genetic variation and other factors. As used by previous researchers, semen parameters were used to measure male infertility. Therefore, a decrease in semen quality is considered as a major factor in male infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen_quality). Previous studies (Kidd et al.2001,Eskenazi et al.2003, de La Rochebrochard and Thonneau 2003) have found that older men tend to have lower semen quality than younger ones. Testicular hyperthermia (elevated temperature) also has been known to affect male fertility. Men who like taking hot baths or sit in a sedentary position for a long time are at risk of having infertility. The objectives of this study are to identify the relationship between socio-demographic profile, lifestyle and environmental factors and semen quality, and to identify risk factors of poor semen quality among men attending the National Population and Family Development Board's (NPFDB) Subfertility Clinic. This study was done in Andrology Laboratory, NPFDB. Five hundred men from couples having their first infertility consultation between September 2010 abd June 2011 were recruited. Each patient was required to register, deposit semen and fill in the quesstionnaire. Sperm concentration, morphology and motility from semen analysis were used to study the relationship between semen quality and independent variables. Reference limits used were 15 cells x 10'6/ml, 4% and 40 %, respectively (World Health Organization, 2010). For statistical analysis, descriptive statistic, t test and ANOVA were used; 0.05 alpha value was chosen. Results showed that one-third of the study population were between 26 to 30 years of age and another one third were aged between 31 to 35 years old; mean age was 33.2. majority were Malays (71.2%), resided in Selangor (64.3%) and professionals (41.6%). Semen quality showed a negative relationship (p<0.05) with age. Meanwhile, sperm motility varied significantly for different ethnic group. Chinese (57.75%) had the highest motile-sperm compared to Malays (53.44%) and Indians (46.60%). Among lifestyles variables, frequency of sexual intercourse had a posive relationship (p<0.05) with sperm motility, whilst sedentary position had negative relationship (p<0.05) with the latter. Regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors of poor semen quality. This study found that men above 30 years old were two times more likely to have low sperm motility than men in the twenties. Moreover, less frequent sexual activity between couples was more likely (p<0.05) to have abnormal sperm compared to those who had sexual intercourse more frequently. In conclusion, this study suggested that age over 30 years and infrequent sexual activity were the risk factors to lower semen quality. Even though not regarded as a risk factor, sedentary work position had a negative impact on sperm motility. These factors may affect male fertility and cause difficulty in conception. Public awareness through advocacy programs and talks on infertility and its risk factors should be carried out regularly. Public education should be carried out to advice men to practice a healthy lifestyle and work life balance. This study has shown encouraging results, and should be replicated in the general population in Malaysia
 
 
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Kajian perbandingan penggunaan tiga jenis rawatan hormon FSH dalam kalangan pesakit subfertiliti yang menjalani prosedur permanian beradas di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Since 1979, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been providing subfertility management services to the public especially middle-income group. In line with the rapid pace of the latest technology and research developments, there are various types of fertility drugs in the form of injections which had been used in subfertility treatment. The main function of this injection is to mature the follicles where the main hormone contained in this injection is the follicle stimulating hormone (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, FSH). In general, there are three types of FSH injections, which is a recombinant FSH (rFSH) that have 100 percent synthetic hormone, urinary FSH (uFSH) that derived from menopausal urine and highly purified urinary FSH (hp-uFSH) that also derived from menopausal urine but more pure state than uFSH. All three hormones have FSH’s activities but uFSH and hp-uFSH also have Luteinizing Hormone’s activity (LH). Thus, NPFDB has taken initiative to conduct a comparative study on the use of three types of FSH hormone treatment, namely Gonal F (rFSH), Folliova (uFSH) and Menopur (hp-uFSH), among subfertilitie’s patient who’s undergoing Intrauterine Insemination Technique (IUI). Among others, the three types of hormones were studied in terms of effevtivenee and cost burden. The study sample was from patients with unknown cause of subfertilitie’s problem and they visit NPFDB Subfertilitie’s Clinic, Headquarters, from June 2010 to May 2012. The sampling method was random. The patient and researcher do not know the treatment regimen to be initiated until a closed sample containing the treatment regimen code number is opened by the patient before starting treatment. Data were collected, recorded and anlyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Although originally a total of 90 female patients were targeted to be recruited into this study. 30 patients for each type of FSH hormone, but at the end of the study only 39 patients met all eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in this study. The result showed that average of the patients was 28.3 years and the majority were ethnic Malays (76.9%). Most of the patients had a household income between RM 5,000.00 and RM 10,000.00 (51.4%). The percentage of patients requiring more than three injections to procedure mature follicles was lowest for Folliova (41.7%), compared with Menopur (50.0%) and Gonal F (55.6%). Similarly in terms of the number of follicles produced, the Folliova regime (58.3%) produced more follicles (more than three follicles) than other regimes. A total of 16.7 percent of patients who took Menopur injections were confirmed pregnant, while no pregnany occurred among patients who took Folliova and Gonal F. In terms of cost, at the time of this study, the price of three 75IU injections was RM 334.20 for Gonal F, RM 187.20 for Folliova and RM 271.20 for Menopur. In conclusion, this study shows that, hp-uFSH (Menopur) gives the highest pregnancy rate compared to Gonal F and Folliova. Furthemore, the price of Menopur is moderate (affordable) for patients. Therefore, highly purified urinary FSH is a good gonadotropin choice for couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing an IUI procedure and it may be the main choice for patients who need a combination fertility pill stimulation regimen and gonadotropin injections. As a suggestion, such a study should be conducted with a larger sample size to obtain more significant results and be representative of actual population.
 
 
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Research on risk and protective factors affecting adolescents' sexual and reproductive health in Sabah & Sarawak 2015
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  09/09/2016
Abstract:  A quarter of the world population (1.8 billion) consists of people aged 10-24 years (UN DESA, 2009). Adolescents is a phase of life whereby they have opportunities for developing healthy behaviours, which can determine the future pattern of adulth health. However, for most adolescents, this is the phase of self-discovery whereby they undergo biological, psychological, social and economic changes in their life. Curiosity and experimentation are normal among them where certain behaviours would place adolescents at risk of undesired consequences of their activity. There are various biological, social, educational and psychological risk factors that predispose adolescents to unhealthy and unsafe sexual phenomena such as premarital sex, having multiple sexual partners, unwanted pregnancy, early childbearing and illegal abortion. In terms of biological factors, early menarche, being male men and older age were found to be the significant risk factors. In addition, social factors including unemployment, peer influence (peer/ friends who have had sexual experience) and use of the substance such as alcohol, tend to increase the tendency of unsafe and unhealthy sexual practices (WHO, 2004). Besides, lack of sexual reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationship, inaccessibility of youth-friendly SRH services are other risk factors that had been identified (Low, 2006). Although there is limited data on teenage pregnancy in Malaysia, the increasing reports on incidences of abandoned babies indicate that increased premarital sexual intercourse resulted in unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. From 2005 to March 2014, it was reported that there were 561 cases of baby dumping (RMP, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). the number of reports of abortion indicates that there is an increase in the number of extramarital sex among unmarried adolescents. Many 51 cases of infant abandonment were reported in 2005 to March 2014 (PDRM, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). In 2012, a study was conducted to identify the risk and protective factors of adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia (NPFDB, 2015). There has been a dearth of studies on adolescents’ SRH in Sabah and Sarawak. Therefore, studies on SRH among this sub-population are warranted. Furthermore, there are differences in terms of demographic characteristics compared to Peninsular Malaysia. Based on these findings, more specific educational and intervention programmes tailored to the needs of the adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak need to be planned and implemented in order to prevent them from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. The objective of this study was to determine the risk and protective factors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak.
 
 
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Faktor risiko dan pelindung terhadap kesihatan seksual dan reproduktif remaja di Semenanjung Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  In Malaysia, statistics from the National Registration Department (NRD) show that a total of 214,033 illegitimate children were born from 2004 to 2009. While statistics from the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) show that 596 cases of baby abandonment were reported from 2005 to 2013. For the total number of rape crimes in among teenagers under the age of 18, PDRM statistics show an increase from 1,710 cases in 2006 to 2,658 cases in 2013. The increase in such cases shows that today's teenagers face the problem of moral decay and fragility of identity which is a concern of Malaysian society. Accordingly, knowledge of sexual and reproductive health can help adolescents avoid negative symptoms such as cases of extramarital pregnancies and social symptoms related to sexuality. The objective of this study was to (i). to study the prevalence of unhealthy sexual behavior among adolescents aged 13-24 years in peninsular Malaysia; (ii). identify risk factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH); and (iii). identify protective factors related to ASRH. This study was implemented using two (2) main approaches, namely quantitative and qualitative methods. The design of the quantitative study was successfully conducted on 5,088 adolescents aged 13 to 24 years. The qualitative study involved a total of eight (8) Focus Group Discussions (FGD) conducted in eight (8) selected detention centers and shelter hostels located in several states in Peninsular Malaysia.
 
 
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Kajian Penilaian Modul Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial (PKRS) dalam kalangan Pelatih PLKN
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2011
Abstract:  Adolescents are the future leaders of the country and have a huge influence on the social, economic and political situation of the country. However, with the presence of various social problems that plague teenagers today, it is feared that it will affect their future which in turn is detrimental to the country. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) has taken the initiative by developing the Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action Plan (PKRS) which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under this PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) is one (1) of the agencies that implement the program. In line with the implementation of this policy, the National Service Training Council has agreed with MWFCD's proposal for PKRS to be implemented in PLKN. Following that, NPFDB has implemented one (1) Pre and Post Test Study to trainees to assess the level of knowledge and perception on reproductive and social health before and after the teaching of this PKRS module is conducted. This study also aimed to examine the sexual and reproductive behaviors of trainees. This study was conducted in 2011 in a cross section on PLKN Trainees aged 17 years and above in selected National Service Training Camps in Malaysia using independent random sampling. The total sample required was 1,038 people. The calculation of this sample size is based on an estimated 31,200 PLKN trainees who are required to attend training using Confidence Interval (95%), Margin of Error (1.5%) and Prevalence of Having Sex Out of Wedlock Among Adolescents (6.5%), (Naing L, 2006). Questionnaires were developed according to the needs and objectives of the study. One-third of the questions of this questionnaire were adapted from an international study, namely the Youth Risk Surveillance Survey, 2011 but adapted according to the objectives of the study and the culture of the community in Malaysia. The method of questionnaire administration was self administered. The scope of the questionnaire covers three (3) domains namely demographic information, knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive and social health as well as adolescent sexual behavior. A total of 1,300 pieces of assessment forms (pre and post -test) were distributed during the first teaching session of the module. Of that number, only 1,063 forms were received for analysis. After the initial analysis was conducted, it was found that there were some questions that were not fully answered by the respondents. Therefore, the data analysis will vary according to the number of participants who answered for each section. In total, a total of 1,063 respondents were successfully covered in 13 training camps nationwide. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the respondents consisted of 57.8% male adolescents and 42.2% female. The majority of respondents were aged between 17 to 19 years (95.6%) with a mean age of around 18 years. Based on the ethnic composition, 66.7% are Malays, 15.3% Chinese, 4.2% Indians and 13.8% are other ethnicities including Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputera. Most respondents have SPM education (95.6%) and are unmarried (99.6%). The overall findings of the study can be summarized that the level of respondents' knowledge on reproductive and sexual health increased significantly (p <0.05) after undergoing the PKRS module with an increase in mean knowledge score of 7.04±2.2 (before undergoing the module) to 9.17±2.1. A total of 71.1% of respondents obtained a score of 9 out of 12 items (75.0%) and above after undergoing the module. There was a significant change in attitudes (p <0.05) on reproductive and social health after undergoing PKRS training. This indirectly shows that this PKRS module seeks to help respondents change their attitudes in a more positive direction. A total of 10.4% of respondents admitted to having had sex. The mean age of having sex for the first time is about 15 years. 45.5 percent of them had sex with more than one partner. Only 2.1 percent admitted to being sexually attracted to the same sex with 18.2% of them admitting to having had same -sex sex.
 
 


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Kajian faktor-faktor penghalang wanita berkahwin menjalani ujian pap smear
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Cervical cancer is the second most dangerous threat to women that not only lead to a loss of pregnancy, but can even be life threatening. 12.9 percent of all cancer deaths among women are also due to this cancer. Unfortunately, 80% of women who are first diagnosed with cervical cancer are already at serious stage and cannot be treated properly even though cervical cancer screening programs such as Pap Smear have existed since 1943. Statistics released by the Ministry of Health Malaysia through the 2003 National Cancer Registry Report showed, even after the implementation of the Pap Smear program, the incidence rate of cervical cancer has increased where in 1990 the incidence rate was 13.3 per 100,000 women compared to 19.7 per 100,000 women in 2003. This illustrates that the Pap Smear program in Malaysia is not comprehensive and not practiced by those who need it which is women who have started sexual activity. Therefore, the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) has conducted a study in relation to cervical cancer screening or Pap Smear test. This study aimed to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history, women’s awareness on pap screening tests, women’s risk perceptions of cervical cancer, women’s attitudes towards the importance of Pap Smear testing and prevalence of Pap Smear screening test practice. This cross -sectional study was conducted in the Klang Valley, Melaka, Perak and Terengganu using purposive sampling. The total sample was 1000 people. The study population consisted of once married women aged between 20-65 years. This includes married women, widows and widowers. The conditions for rejecting the sample are ineligible women, such as unmarried women, non-Malaysian citizens and women who have had cervical cancer. The collection of research data is through interviews based on the text of the questionnaire provided. Respondents will be interviewed by interviewers who have been trained to obtain accurate information. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi-square test and t test. Therefore, based on the analysis that has been conducted, the prevalence of female Pap Smear test is 55.2 percent. Respondents showed a positive attitude when asked about the importance of Pap Smear test compared to other examinations, many of whom thought that this test was very important (92.7 percent). Only 4.2 percent considered the Pap Smear test not important and there were a few who could not provide certainty about its importance (3.1 percent). Not many can measure the risk they are facing to get cervical cancer as 377 (41.5 percent) people are unaware of the cancer risk they are facing. However, there were a total of 276 (30.4 percent) women who were confident that they were not at risk at all. Only 7.7 percent received a high risk of this cancer, moderate risk (5.6 percent) and low risk (14.9 percent).
 
 
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A Study on health status of youth in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  This study analyzed health screening of 22,840 youths, who were distributed equally by ethnicity and camp sessions. Based on the analysis, 21.6% of youths were underweight, 18.1% pre-obese and 10.3% obese, with 0.3% perceived having body image disorders. With regards to sexual and reproductive health issues, 39.6% admitted viewing pornographic materials, 28.5% practiced masturbation, 6.5% engaged in premarital sexual relationships, 5.5% had multiple partners and 1.6% had been involved in homosexual relationships. History of abortion was discovered by 0.5% of the respondents. Almost a quarter of the youths were smokers, while 8.7% had consumed alcohol and 1.4% admitted taking drugs. The study also revealed that 6.2% of respondents reported to have past involvement in bully and 14.1% in fight. About 7.1% of the respondents revealed they had been physically abused while 1.2% of them had been sexually abused. Mental health problems were noted in 27.5% of the youths, with depression in 9.8% of the youths, anxiety in 20.7% and suicidal ideation in 11.8%. Psycho-social problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior, physical/sexual abuse and mental health problems among youth are interrelated with common risk and protective factors. Management of psycho-social problems in youths should be holistic; looking into risk and protective factors. Programs and interventions should focus on strengthening of protective factors among youth such as family connectedness and religiosity.
 
 
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Kajian Pendapat Remaja dan Isu Sosial : mencari penyelesaian
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Introduction of Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action of Plan (PKRS) has been developed which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under the PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been given the mandate as the main agency in implementing the program. One of the programs is the Life Skills Program for teenagers which uses two (2) modules, namely the Cakna Diri Module (I’m In Control) and the Kesejahteraan Hidup Module. The purpose of this module developed is to improve adolescents' skills in aspects of reproductive health in order to avoid high-risk behaviors that lead to several problems such as premarital pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Therefore, an opinion poll was conducted to see the general view on social issues of adolescents, especially from the aspect of reproductive health and the implementation of the Life Skills Program for adolescents.
 
 


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Tingkah laku seks di kalangan warga 45 tahun dan ke atas
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2006
Abstract:  An opinion survey on 'Sexual Behavior Among Citizens 45 Years and Above' which was first conducted by the Human Reproduction Division (BRM) was conducted in the Klang Valley area from February to June 2003. The 'Convenience Sampling' sampling method was used where respondents who meet certain criteria fill in the questionnaire themselves. A total of 473 respondents consisting of 50.1% Malays, Indians (26.6%) and Chinese (23.3%) where men (53.5%) outnumber than women (46.5%). The majority of respondents comprised the age group of 50-59 years (41.25%). From the 220 female respondents, only 7.3% took hormone replacement therapy. The results of the study found that the importance and satisfaction of sex decreases with age where it is more pronounced among women than men. The frequency of sexual intercourse is performed in the range of 4-8 times a month (46.3%). Although only 16.7% of respondents had sex-related problems, 70.9% of them did not know the source of help and treatment for their problems. Among those who received treatment, 56.4% chose to seek modern treatment. 55.7% of respondents with sexual problems have at least one chronic disease. A total of 85.6% disagreed and looked for another partner as a way out of sex -related problems. Expectations for better sex in the future are still high at 69.1%. In conclusion, for middle-aged and above despite the declining importance of sexual intercourse, their right to access to knowledge and services related to sexual problems needs to be addressed immediately, especially by medical practitioners, especially the Human Reproduction Division and LPPKN in general. A systematic and ‘gender-sensitive’ approach can help overcome the problem of family institutional breakdown and problems related to incest.
 
 
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Implementation of the ICPD-PoA in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2004
Abstract:  The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 was regarded as a landmark in the population and development field. At this conference,179 countries,including Malaysia,adopted a 20-year Programme of Action(PoA).The ICPD-PoA calls for empowering of women and providing them with more choices through access to education and health services and promoting skill development and employment.The PoA includes goals in regard to education, especially for girls, and for further reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality levels. It also addresses issues relating population;the environment and consumption patterns; the family; internal and international migration; prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic; information,education and communication;and research and development.This report assesses the progress made by Malaysia in the implementation of ICPD-PoA and in meeting the Millennium Development goals (MDGs). It provides a situational analysis of the population,development,reproductive health and gender related issues, and discusses the various policies and programmes implemented to achieve the objectives of ICPD-PoA. It also emerging challenges and opportunities and put forth some recommended strategies to further strengthen ICPD-PoA implementation in Malaysia.
 
 
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The National Study on reproductive health and sexuality of adolescents in Malaysia 1994/1995
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1996
Abstract:  The National Study on Reproductive Health and Sexuality of Adolescents in Malaysia was initiated with the aim of formulating a National Programme on Reproductive Health for Adolescents. The specific objectives of the study are: i. to establish the status of the knowledge, attitude and practice of adolescents with regard to sexual and reproductive health, ii. to identify the constraints that adolescents face in seeking information and service relating to sexual and reproductive health, iii. to obtain the participation of adolescents in the design and implementation of programmes and activities for their own welfare. The single most expected outcome of the Study on Reproductive Health and Sexuality of Adolescents in Malaysia is a Cabinet memorandum which will propose appropriate policy and programme changes for the promotion and maintenance of optimal reproductive health among Malaysian adolescents geared towards the year 2020. This Memorandum will serve as a vital national reference and benchmark for evaluating future trends and patterns. It will be the basis for the reorientation of values, attitudes and approaches for the management of sexuality and reproductive health of adolescents in the country.
 
 
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Scientific Poster (4)




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Youth and sex information: who they refer to?
Item Type: Scientific Poster
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Abu Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq and
Author: 
Editor: 
, and
Year:  00/07/2015
Abstract:  Youths who involved in sexual behaviors can result in unintended health outcomes and put them at risk for HIV infection, sexuality transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancy and very early childbearing. Factors associated to sexual risk behavior among youth are lack of sexual and reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationships, inaccessibility of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services and peer pressure (Kaestle et Al., 2005). Hence, it is clearly stated that our youths need access to protective information and skills before they become sexually active (Bleakley et al., 2010) Previous research shows significant results on various source of sexual and reproductive health information among youth such as friends, teachers, parents, peers, religious members and media (Gombachika et al.,2013; Kamrani et al., 2011; Bleaky et al., 2009) therefore, there is a need to know and do more address what kind of sources utilized by young people in getting information on sexual and reproductive health, in Malaysia specifically. The purpose of this study was to identify the individuals source of information related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysia youth, as well as to examine the association of these sources with social demographic information.
 
 
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Factors associated with duration of breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia
Item Type: Scientific Poster
Author: 
Mahpul, Irwan Nadzif and
Adnan, Tassha Hilda and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  Breastfeeding is the natural way of feeding a baby, so it should be easy and trouble free for most mothers. It is recommended that mothers to breastfeed their babies exclusively, without giving any other food or drink, for the first six months and continue breastfeeding with appropriate complementary foods up to two years old and beyond [1]. An exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life was also being emphasized in the Malaysian National Breastfeeding Policy which was formulated in 1993 and revised in 2005 in accordance with the World Health Assembly Resolution 54.2. Breastfeeding is beneficial to both, baby and mother. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) [2], if every baby were exclusively breastfed from birth, an estimated 1.5 million lives would be saved each year. And not just saved, but enhanced, because breast milk is the perfect food for a baby’s first six months of life. Beral et al. [3] reported that the longer women breastfeed the more they are protected against breast cancer. In addition, according to Danforth et al. [4], mothers who breastfeed their babies of 18 or more months are associated with a significant decrease in ovarian cancer risk compared to those never breastfeed. Other than health benefits of breastfeeding, it offers a natural opportunity to communicate love at the very beginning of a child’s life by providing hours of closeness and nurturing every day, laying the foundation for a caring and trusting relationship between mother and child [2]. Despite the vast benefits of breastfeeding for both mothers and babies, breastfeeding rates are declining worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) [5], the decline in duration of breastfeeding in the twentieth century as a result of rapid social and economic change, including urbanization and marketing of breast milk substitutes. Malaysia faces a similar phenomenon where not all mothers choose to breastfeed according to the suggested duration. Findings of the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys showed that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding had declined from 29.0 % in year 1996 to 14.5 % in year 2006 [6]. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the duration of breastfeeding and also to explore the determinants of the duration of breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia.
 
 
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Thesis (4)




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Kajian bagi mengenalpasti faktor-faktor risiko kanser payudara yang berkaitan dengan gaya hidup dalam kalangan wanita melayu di Kuala Lumpur
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Affandi, Khuzailah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/02/2016
Abstract:  Breast cancer is the most common cancer that has affected women all over the world. The worldwide rates of breast cancer incidence and mortality show a drastic and alarming increase. Until today the cause of the disease has yet to be identified. However, evidences from extensive researches related to breast cancer found that there were several lifestyle factors and some biomedical factors of the women that are scientifically recognized to increase the risk for breast cancer. In Malaysia, recent data obtained from data obtained from the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) shows the incidence rate of breast cancer among Malay women was found to have increased drastically in the last 8 years. This study aimed to identify risk factors, especially those related to lifestyle that may increase the risk of breast cancer among Malay women in Kuala Lumpur. The study also examined the knowledge of breast cancer among informants. A total of twelve breast cancer survivors were interviewed in depth to identify and explore aspects of past lifestyle and biomedical background that may likely to increase their risk of getting breast cancer. Results show that some lifestyle and biological risk factors seen likely to increase the risk of getting breast cancer; late age at first birth or has never given birth (nulliparity), has never breastfed or short period of breastfed, obesity, physical inactivity, high frequency of red meat intake, less intake of vegetables and fruits, psychological stress, family history of breast cancer and radiation treatment to the chest or breast. The study also found that the majority of the informants had poor knowledge regarding breast cancer.
 
 
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Antara dua dunia : memahami pengalaman subjektif transeksual
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Jalil, Salmi Jalina and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2013
Abstract:  This study was designed to make a better understanding of transsexual’s subjective experiences. Semi structure face to face interview method was chosen in order to gather these data. There are three respondent (transsexual male to female) aged 30th , 40th and 50th involved in this study, which was represented by one person for each group. The data gathered was analyzed based on topics and subtopics. Three (3) main topic such as background, experience in childhood and adolescent and self-concept was highlighted in this study. There are numbers of interesting findings based on background, trigger that cause transsexual identity, colleague influential, emotion and behavior. These key elements should be considered directly or indirectly in order to implement policy, intervention, program and counseling. By understanding their experience well, would help enhancing their resilient and coping skills with regards to immoral activities and make them feel part of the community. This study is a prelude to other studies involving the transsexual especially for parents who have child which is tend to develop transsexual identity and other aspects such as sexual life, psychology resiliency, coping skills and ets.
 
 
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Cytotoxicity and expression profiles of apoptosis gene related in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains AF2240 And V4-UPM
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Mohd Yussof, Mohd Azizuddin and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/01/2011
Abstract:  In this study the cytotoxicity and expression profiles of apoptosis gene related in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains AF2240 and V4-UPM were studied. NDV is a strain of avian paramyxovirus. NDV has been classified into the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Paramyxovirinae and genus Rubulavirus. NDV caused severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Several local strains of Newcastle disease virus were reported to induce cytolysis to the cancerous cell lines. Strain AF2240 is a heat resistant viscerotropic velogenic NDV and strain V4-UPM is a heat resistant lentogenic which has significant higher thermostabilities of infectivity and haemagglutination were reported cytolysis leukemic cells in vitro and has shown in vivo anti leukemic agents . In this study the cytotoxicity effects of strains of NDV AF2240 and V4-UPM towards HeLa cell were determined by using standard microtetrazolium assay (MTT). Cytotoxicity dose 50% (CD50) cells treated with different titre of NDV as haemagglutination units (HAU) as compared to the untreated cells was estimated at 72 hours post-infection. The CD50 values obtained were 0.95 HAU and 1.0 HAU for strains AF2240 and V4-UPM, respectively. No cytolytic effect was noted towards normal cells (3T3) was observed. Both strains were also observed to inhibit HeLa cell proliferation. Morphological observations also have been done under inverted light and fluorescence microscopes. Under the inverted light microscope, the HeLa cells treated with both strains showed apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, cell blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. Morphological features of apoptosis were also observed by using the AO/PI staining method under the fluorescence microscope. The AO/PI staining demonstrated the occurrence of apoptosis which was characterised mainly by chromatin condensation, nuclear shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. Evidently, both strains AF2240 and V4-UPM used in the study were found to induce cells towards apoptosis rather than necrosis. NDV strain AF2240 and strain V4-UPM was also caused genotoxic in HeLa cells after two hours treatment with CD10 and CD25 values by alkaline comet assay. Results showed that HeLa cells treated with NDV strains AF2240, V4-UPM and hydrogen peroxide gave different distribution of scores. The HeLa cells treated with hydrogen peroxide as a positive control gave more percentage at score 2, 3 and 4 for both cytotoxicity values compared to the HeLa cells treated with NDV for both strains. Observation in this study has proved the genotoxic potential of the NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM to induce DNA damage on HeLa cells as early as two hours following treatment at very low cytotoxicity dose (CD10 and CD25) values. Meanwhile, the cell cycle analyses of HeLa cells treated with local strains of NDV AF2240 or V4-UPM did not induce cell cycle arrest in any specific phase. Sub-G1 phase (apoptosis peak) was found in both treated cells with a very high percentage compared to untreated cells with a small percentage. The results indicate that, the percentages of apoptosis were significantly increased (p≤0.05) in the time-dependent manner in both NDV strains treated HeLa cells. The molecular mechanisms of apoptosis may depend on the NDV strain and cell type. Six apoptosis genes were selected in this study namely Casp8, TNF-α, Bcl2 and TRAIL which focused on extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, while the gene Bax was used as an indicator for intrinsic pathway triggered by cellular stress. Lastly Myc, oncogene was used as an indicator for cell growth. From this study, NDV strain AF2240 was identified as a highly induced death receptor pathway due to the upregulation of TNF gene and the downregulation of Bax gene. Whereas NDV strain V4-UPM triggered both pathways but through the extrinsic pathway due to the very high expression of the TNF gene. The TNF gene was highly expressed due to its location and function as a stimulator of the death receptor pathway. The Casp8 gene was activated and expressed in order to enter the execution-phase of cell death. The Bcl-2 gene was continuously observed because of its function as an apoptosis regulator. Surprisingly, no expression was detected by the TRAIL gene. NDV strain AF2240 was more effective than NDV strain V4-UPM as an apoptosis inducer. These gene expression results showed that the apoptosis occurred and lead to cell death.
 
 
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Video (2)