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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Ageing"


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Gaya hidup wanita dan faktor risiko kanser payudara: satu kajian literatur
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Affandi, Khuzailah and
Vivien, W.C. Yew and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  Breast cancer is currently the most common cancer in women worldwide. It is said that there is no proven method of preventing cancer. However, studies have shown that there are some women’s lifestyle factors that have been scientifically shown to increase the risk of breast cancer. A review of the literature from the epidemiological, medical, and psychosocial disciplines strives to analyse factors that tend to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Published material reviewed concerning the connection between breast cancer risk and lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This review shows that several women’s lifestyle factors have been regularly considered as risk factors for developing breast cancer. They include women who have not had children or women who had their first child at an older age, short duration of brestfeeding or not breastfeed at all, diet and nutrition, and psychological stress.
 
 
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Social pension, aging and poverty in Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mohd, Saidatulakmal and
Mansor, Norma and
Ku Ahmad, Shamsulbahriah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  The increasing number of elderly in Malaysia calls for a more stringent policy to safeguard the well-being of the elderly. The old age protection such as the pension scheme, Employees Provident Fund and the old age cash assistance although in tact, deemed to be inadequate to eradicate elderly poverty. One possible solution to secure financial protection during old age is through social pension that provides non-labor income for the retirees or elderly with the purpose of preventing or reducing elderly poverty. This paper attempts to estimate the financial cost of social pension scheme and quantify its potential role in reducing elderly poverty in Malaysia. The financial cost of social pension scheme was calculated as a percentage to GDP. By using the 2009 household income expenditure survey, the paper estimated the potential roles of social pension in eradicating elderly poverty. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the cost social pension could be kept at an average of 1.30 percentage of GDP. The 2009 HIES data also indicated that poverty could be eventually be eradicated with social pension while cost of the social pension was kept at reasonable levels.
 
 
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