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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Reproductive Health"


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Executive Summary: youth intervention study: best practices of youth intervention programmes in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2020
Abstract:  In the decades, Malaysia has undergone rapid economic, social and cultural changes which impacted not only the daily lives of its people but also their worldview and values. This is particularly so for young people, as excessive exposure to information from the social media, internet and pornography had inevitably influence their lifestyle and behaviour. The socio-cultural changes are likely associated with an increased rates of non-marital sexual activity, increased rates of sex partner change and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2005, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through NPFDB introduced the PEKERTI Programme to be implemented at KafeTEEN adolescents centres. The programme provides reproductive health services, counseling services and education and skill building to promote a healthy life and inculcate positive attitudes and moral values among young people.
 
 
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Differentials in sexual and reproductive health knowledge among East Malaysian adolescents
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Awang, Halimah and
Low, Wah Yun and
Wen, Tin Tong and
Lih, Yoong Tang and
Whye, Lin Cheah and
Helen, Benedict Lasimbang and
Mohd Hassan, Hamizah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2019
Abstract:  The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of East Malaysian adolescents on sexual and reproductive health issues. Data were collected in March–July 2015 from 2858 adolescents aged 13–18 years from selected East Malaysian secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Twelve items relating to sexual and reproductive health were used to measure respondents’ knowledge based on their responses ‘True’, ‘False’ or ‘Don’t know’, with the proportion of correct answers being the variable of interest. Cronbach’s alpha for the twelve items was 0.761 and the mean knowledge score was 6.8. While the majority of the respondents knew that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex with a man and that HIV and AIDS can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, knowledge about Malaysia’s abortion laws, that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex only once and that people with sexually transmitted infections may look healthy was poor. Older respondents and those from urban schools reported significantly higher knowledge than younger respondents and those from rural schools, respectively. More emphasis should be given in schools to the specific topics for which low levels of sexual and reproductive health knowledge were found, with greater attention being given to younger adolescents and those in rural areas.
 
 


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Modul Cakna Diri Lelaki Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduksi dan Seksual Untuk Remaja Lelaki Berumur 16-24 Tahun
Item Type: Module
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2018
Abstract:  The Sexual and Reproductive Health Module for boys and young men age 16 to 24 years was developed to address sexual and reproductive health as well as social issues for boys and young men. It is also aim to create awareness on the importance of reproductive health and social education as well as gender equality for future well-being. This module is divided into two (2) main target groups i.e. general adolescents (Module A) and most-at-risk adolescents (Module B). The main components of Module A includes topics on adolescent growth, developmental, health, psychosocial - 3R (Respect, Relationship and Responsibility), laws and regulations, drugs and substance abuse. Module B covers topics on risky social behaviors, risky sexual behaviors and teen pregnancy. This module is developed as an interactive form using various learning methods such as role play, sketches, group work and discussions to attract participation of boys and young men.
 
 
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Kajian Pengesanan Mikrodelesi Kromosom Y dalam kalangan klien Infertiliti di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  The study "Microdelesi of Y Chromosome among NPFDB Infertility Clients" conducted by the Biomedical Unit, NFPDB is to identify infertility factors from a genetic aspect. Study samples were obtained from infertility patients referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory, NPFDB from 2003 to 2010. A total of 100 blood samples of clients diagnosed as azoospermia (48), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (24), oligozoospermia (15), severe oligozoospermia (6), Klinefelter Syndrome (3) and idiopathy (4) were performed Chromosome Analysis Tests to identify any abnormalities of the number and structure on the chromosome and subsequently Molecular Testing is performed to detect the microdeletion of the Y chromosome. Majority of ethnic groups involved in the study are Malays, which is 74 people (74%) followed by Chinese; nine (9) people (9%), Indians; seven (7) people (7%) and other ethnicities from Sabah and Sarawak as many as 10 people (10%) in the age range of 23 to 46 years.The chromosome analysis test results for the 100 samples were normal which is, 46, XY, no abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes were found. Results was found that 15 samples (15%) underwent Y chromosome microdeletion at the AZF locus in molecular test. From 15 samples, 10 samples were azoospermia, three (3) severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia samples and two (2) oligozoospermia samples. Each sample experienced deletion at different locus and there were samples that experienced multiple deletion which involved deletion of more than one factor locus (AZF).The most common AZF factors found to experience deletion were AZFc (73.33%) followed by AZFb (53.33%), AZFd (40%) and AZFa (13.33%). In conclusion, it was found that genetic factors are one of the causes of infertility problems among clients came for subfertility treatment. Looking at the importance of undergoing genetic screening testing at an early stage, it is recommended that this test be tested for men diagnosed with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia at the Subfertility Clinic, NPFDB. The information obtained has prognostic value and influences the medical therapy chosen to assist in the clinical management of the client and his descendant in the future.
 
 
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Effects of socio-demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors on semen quality of men attending the sub fertility clinic in National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Couples are considered infertile if they are unable to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sex. The impact of lifestyle and environment on human fertility may vary depending on aetiology, demographic characteristics, genetic variation and other factors. As used by previous researchers, semen parameters were used to measure male infertility. Therefore, a decrease in semen quality is considered as a major factor in male infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen_quality). Previous studies (Kidd et al.2001,Eskenazi et al.2003, de La Rochebrochard and Thonneau 2003) have found that older men tend to have lower semen quality than younger ones. Testicular hyperthermia (elevated temperature) also has been known to affect male fertility. Men who like taking hot baths or sit in a sedentary position for a long time are at risk of having infertility. The objectives of this study are to identify the relationship between socio-demographic profile, lifestyle and environmental factors and semen quality, and to identify risk factors of poor semen quality among men attending the National Population and Family Development Board's (NPFDB) Subfertility Clinic. This study was done in Andrology Laboratory, NPFDB. Five hundred men from couples having their first infertility consultation between September 2010 abd June 2011 were recruited. Each patient was required to register, deposit semen and fill in the quesstionnaire. Sperm concentration, morphology and motility from semen analysis were used to study the relationship between semen quality and independent variables. Reference limits used were 15 cells x 10'6/ml, 4% and 40 %, respectively (World Health Organization, 2010). For statistical analysis, descriptive statistic, t test and ANOVA were used; 0.05 alpha value was chosen. Results showed that one-third of the study population were between 26 to 30 years of age and another one third were aged between 31 to 35 years old; mean age was 33.2. majority were Malays (71.2%), resided in Selangor (64.3%) and professionals (41.6%). Semen quality showed a negative relationship (p<0.05) with age. Meanwhile, sperm motility varied significantly for different ethnic group. Chinese (57.75%) had the highest motile-sperm compared to Malays (53.44%) and Indians (46.60%). Among lifestyles variables, frequency of sexual intercourse had a posive relationship (p<0.05) with sperm motility, whilst sedentary position had negative relationship (p<0.05) with the latter. Regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors of poor semen quality. This study found that men above 30 years old were two times more likely to have low sperm motility than men in the twenties. Moreover, less frequent sexual activity between couples was more likely (p<0.05) to have abnormal sperm compared to those who had sexual intercourse more frequently. In conclusion, this study suggested that age over 30 years and infrequent sexual activity were the risk factors to lower semen quality. Even though not regarded as a risk factor, sedentary work position had a negative impact on sperm motility. These factors may affect male fertility and cause difficulty in conception. Public awareness through advocacy programs and talks on infertility and its risk factors should be carried out regularly. Public education should be carried out to advice men to practice a healthy lifestyle and work life balance. This study has shown encouraging results, and should be replicated in the general population in Malaysia
 
 
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Kajian perbandingan penggunaan tiga jenis rawatan hormon FSH dalam kalangan pesakit subfertiliti yang menjalani prosedur permanian beradas di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Since 1979, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been providing subfertility management services to the public especially middle-income group. In line with the rapid pace of the latest technology and research developments, there are various types of fertility drugs in the form of injections which had been used in subfertility treatment. The main function of this injection is to mature the follicles where the main hormone contained in this injection is the follicle stimulating hormone (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, FSH). In general, there are three types of FSH injections, which is a recombinant FSH (rFSH) that have 100 percent synthetic hormone, urinary FSH (uFSH) that derived from menopausal urine and highly purified urinary FSH (hp-uFSH) that also derived from menopausal urine but more pure state than uFSH. All three hormones have FSH’s activities but uFSH and hp-uFSH also have Luteinizing Hormone’s activity (LH). Thus, NPFDB has taken initiative to conduct a comparative study on the use of three types of FSH hormone treatment, namely Gonal F (rFSH), Folliova (uFSH) and Menopur (hp-uFSH), among subfertilitie’s patient who’s undergoing Intrauterine Insemination Technique (IUI). Among others, the three types of hormones were studied in terms of effevtivenee and cost burden. The study sample was from patients with unknown cause of subfertilitie’s problem and they visit NPFDB Subfertilitie’s Clinic, Headquarters, from June 2010 to May 2012. The sampling method was random. The patient and researcher do not know the treatment regimen to be initiated until a closed sample containing the treatment regimen code number is opened by the patient before starting treatment. Data were collected, recorded and anlyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Although originally a total of 90 female patients were targeted to be recruited into this study. 30 patients for each type of FSH hormone, but at the end of the study only 39 patients met all eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in this study. The result showed that average of the patients was 28.3 years and the majority were ethnic Malays (76.9%). Most of the patients had a household income between RM 5,000.00 and RM 10,000.00 (51.4%). The percentage of patients requiring more than three injections to procedure mature follicles was lowest for Folliova (41.7%), compared with Menopur (50.0%) and Gonal F (55.6%). Similarly in terms of the number of follicles produced, the Folliova regime (58.3%) produced more follicles (more than three follicles) than other regimes. A total of 16.7 percent of patients who took Menopur injections were confirmed pregnant, while no pregnany occurred among patients who took Folliova and Gonal F. In terms of cost, at the time of this study, the price of three 75IU injections was RM 334.20 for Gonal F, RM 187.20 for Folliova and RM 271.20 for Menopur. In conclusion, this study shows that, hp-uFSH (Menopur) gives the highest pregnancy rate compared to Gonal F and Folliova. Furthemore, the price of Menopur is moderate (affordable) for patients. Therefore, highly purified urinary FSH is a good gonadotropin choice for couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing an IUI procedure and it may be the main choice for patients who need a combination fertility pill stimulation regimen and gonadotropin injections. As a suggestion, such a study should be conducted with a larger sample size to obtain more significant results and be representative of actual population.
 
 
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Research on risk and protective factors affecting adolescents' sexual and reproductive health in Sabah & Sarawak 2015
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  09/09/2016
Abstract:  A quarter of the world population (1.8 billion) consists of people aged 10-24 years (UN DESA, 2009). Adolescents is a phase of life whereby they have opportunities for developing healthy behaviours, which can determine the future pattern of adulth health. However, for most adolescents, this is the phase of self-discovery whereby they undergo biological, psychological, social and economic changes in their life. Curiosity and experimentation are normal among them where certain behaviours would place adolescents at risk of undesired consequences of their activity. There are various biological, social, educational and psychological risk factors that predispose adolescents to unhealthy and unsafe sexual phenomena such as premarital sex, having multiple sexual partners, unwanted pregnancy, early childbearing and illegal abortion. In terms of biological factors, early menarche, being male men and older age were found to be the significant risk factors. In addition, social factors including unemployment, peer influence (peer/ friends who have had sexual experience) and use of the substance such as alcohol, tend to increase the tendency of unsafe and unhealthy sexual practices (WHO, 2004). Besides, lack of sexual reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationship, inaccessibility of youth-friendly SRH services are other risk factors that had been identified (Low, 2006). Although there is limited data on teenage pregnancy in Malaysia, the increasing reports on incidences of abandoned babies indicate that increased premarital sexual intercourse resulted in unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. From 2005 to March 2014, it was reported that there were 561 cases of baby dumping (RMP, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). the number of reports of abortion indicates that there is an increase in the number of extramarital sex among unmarried adolescents. Many 51 cases of infant abandonment were reported in 2005 to March 2014 (PDRM, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). In 2012, a study was conducted to identify the risk and protective factors of adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia (NPFDB, 2015). There has been a dearth of studies on adolescents’ SRH in Sabah and Sarawak. Therefore, studies on SRH among this sub-population are warranted. Furthermore, there are differences in terms of demographic characteristics compared to Peninsular Malaysia. Based on these findings, more specific educational and intervention programmes tailored to the needs of the adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak need to be planned and implemented in order to prevent them from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. The objective of this study was to determine the risk and protective factors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak.
 
 
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