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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Fertility"

Article (12)


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Development of Malaysian women fertility index
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Sharif, Shamshuritawati and
Wan Abd Jalil, Wan Aznie Fatihah and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/11/2018
Abstract:  A fertility rate is a measure of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Malaysia is now facing a population crisis and the fertility rate continues to decline. This situation will have implications for the age structure of the population where percentages of senior citizens are higher than percentages of people aged below 5 years old. Malaysia is expected to reach aging population status by the year 2035. As the aging population has a very long average life expectancy, the government needs to spend a lot on medical costs for senior citizens and need to increase budgets for pensions. The government may be required to increase tax revenues to support the growing older population. The falling fertility rate requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Hence, this paper aims to develop a fertility index using correlation and Shannon's entropy method. The results show that Selangor, Johor, and Sarawak are among the states with the highest values of the fertility index. On the other end of the spectrum, Terengganu, W.P. Labuan, and Perlis are ranked in the last positions according to the fertility index. The information generated from the results in this study can be used as a primary source for the government to design appropriate policies to mitigate dwindling fertility rates among Malaysian women.
 
 


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The socioeconomic factors in constructing women fertility index: a Malaysian case study
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Wan Abd Jalil, Wan Aznie Fatihah and
Sharif, Shamshuritawati and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2017
Abstract:  Women fertility is rated by the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Malaysia is now facing a population crisis and the fertility rate continues to decline. This situation will have implications for the age structure of the population. Malaysia is expected to reach aging population status by the year 2035. As the aging population has a very long average life expectancy, the government needs to spend a lot on medical costs for senior citizens and need to increase budgets for pensions. The government may be required to increase tax revenues to support the growing older population. The falling fertility rate requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Hence, this paper aims to develop a fertility index using correlation and Shannon's entropy method. There are two main results from this analysis which are the factor rank and fertility index for each state. The three most important factors that influence fertility in Malaysia based on correlation method listed the number of females living in urban areas, number of females employed, and family planning methods while Shannon's entropy method listed female tertiary education attainments, number of divorces, and family planning methods. Next, the fertility index show that Selangor, Johor, and Sarawak are among the states with the highest values. On the other end of the spectrum, Terengganu, W.P. Labuan, and Perlis are ranked in the last positions. As a summary, the weighted calculation based on the correlation and entropy give different results in terms of rank the factors influencing the fertility. However, the results of both methods show that Selangor has the highest fertility index. From this study, the government may design the appropriate policies to mitigate dwindling fertility rates among Malaysian women.
 
 
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The detection of estrogen-dependent proteins in monkey oviductal fluid
Item Type: Article
Author: 
A., Paliwal and
V.P., Kamboj and
B., Malaviya and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  To detect hormone induced changes in oviductal fluid protein pattern, flushings obtained from ovariectomized untreated and estradiol or estradiol plus progesterone treated monkeys were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Superimposed densitometric scans of coomassie blue and periodic acid Schiff's (PAS) stained electrophoretic patterns revealed that estradiol treatment results in the appearance of a new protein (130 K) with maximum carbohydrate content as compared to other proteins present in the luminal milieu. The concentration of 85 and 95 K proteins also increase significantly after estradiol treatment. However, progesterone supplementation in estradiol primed monkeys results in the disappearance of 85 and 95 K proteins and decreased the 130 K glycoprotein considerably. Thus while estrogen acts as an inducer,progesterone antagonizes its action in monkey fallopian tubes and inhibits the synthesis of proteins which may have a role in early reproductive events.
 
 
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Clinical evaluation of Buserelin, a GnRH analogue in the management of moderate to severe pelvic endometriosis
Item Type: Article
Author: 
M.T.M., Ismail and
H.A., Wadood and
M., Azhar and
Arshat, Hamid and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/1990
Abstract:  A local study, a part of a multinasional and multicenter study on the efficacy and safety of Buserelin was carried out for the treatment of pelvic endometriosis using a standard protocol. 20 women diagnosed to have moderate to severe endometriosis by laparoscopy were recruited. The women were given 900 micrograms Buserelin acetate daily by intranasal spray for a fixed period of 6 months. Baseline hormonal and biochemical parameters were taken prior to treatment and the parameters were repeated during each follow-up at weekly and monthly intervals. In addition, changes in symptoms were monitored. A second look laparoscopy was performed at completion of therapy and patients were followed up for a further 6 months. There was 100 percent suppression of oestradiol levels during the 6 months treatment period. An improvement of implants according to AFS classification occured in all patients. One patient discontinued because of side effects. Restoration of cycles after completion of therapy occured within 7 weeks. There were 7 pregnancies (64%) in the first 6 months after treatment for those wanting pregnancies. During therapy, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain and dyspareunia improved considerably. Buserelin was proven to be effective in the management of pelvic endometriosis and is well tolerated and safe.
 
 
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In vitro maturation of immature human oocytes in culture medium containing follicular fluid
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Ali, Jaffar and
A.J., Halim and
Arshat, Hamid and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/06/1987
Abstract:  In clinical IVF programs often immature oocytes are retrieved. Under such circumstances, numerous workers have advocated the procedure of pre-incubation in insemination medium for 12-36 hours, prior to insemination to induce maturation. We describe here the supplementation of follicular fluid in insemination medium to induce maturation of immature oocytes. The culture characteristics of the insemination medium containing follicular fluid appears to be better than the insemination medium without follicular fluid. Previous reports suggest the presence of a meiosis-inducing substance in follicular fluid which could trigger the resumption of meiosis and hence contribute to oocyte maturation. Other factors in follicular fluids which are yet to be elucidated, may also contribute to oocyte maturation. It is concluded that superior culture characteristics can be obtained if immature oocytes are preincubated for 16-36 hours in insemination medium containing 50% follicular fluid.
 
 
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Book Section (5)




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Fertility preferences in Malaysia
Item Type: Book Section
Author: 
Abdul Rashid, Saharani and
Ab. Ghani, Puzziawati and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Ismail, Najihah and
Aziz, Azlan and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  30/11/2018
Abstract:  Most countries have been experiencing changes in fertility pattern over the last few decades. Fertility transition from high to low is a relatively recent phenomenon in Malaysia. The total fertility rate (TFR) had declined from 4.9 children per woman in 1970 to 4.0 in 1980. It has continued to fall and has reached the replacement level of 2.1 in 2010. This chapter provides the trend analysis and a comparative analysis of fertility trends to explain the fertility transition of Malaysia’s population. Data used in this study were obtained from Department of Statistics, Malaysia and Fifth Malaysian Population and Family Survey, 2014. The result of this study showed that the fertility rate between age groups was higher among Malay than other ethnics since 1991–2010. Across all ages, the fertility rate has a negative correlation with the educational level where women with tertiary education tend to have fewer children compared to less educated women. This study also presents the fertility desire in Malaysia. There is a negative correlation between age group and fertility desire. In addition, the desire to stop childbearing is found to be stronger when women have had three living children. The findings of this study will help policy makers to plan programmes to improve the fertility rate in Malaysia.
 
 
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Conference or Workshop Item (14)




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Kajian kesedaran dan pengetahuan orang awam mengenai infertiliti
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Shekh Abdullah, Faezah and
Harun, Rosliah and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  The infertility rate in Malaysia is estimated around 10 to 15 %. World Health Organization has classified infertility as a disease that needs attention as early as possible. It is one of the factors that contribute to decreasing total fertility rate. Public misunderstanding regarding infertility may affect on how they handle this issue. People always take this issue lightly since it is not a life-threatening disease, unlike heart attack, diabetes and cancer. The Bertarelli Foundation Scientific Board (1999) had found that infertility awareness was still low in a few countries in Europe, such as Belgium, Italy, France, Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom. Knowledge on infertility is very crucial because it helps couples to prepare when they are having difficulty in conceiving. The objective of this study was to identify our local people awareness and knowledge on infertility issues as very few studies have been done in Malaysia.
 
 
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Predictor of successful Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) treatment for infertile couples treated at a Malaysian clinic
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ismail, Maslinor and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The purpose of the study was to determine prognostic factors that affect the success rate of Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) as well as association of prognostic factors with success rate of IUI treatment for infertile couples. A retrospective cohort study investigating the prognostic factors affecting success of IUI was done at National Infertility clinic. A total of 1585 couples involving 3249 IUI cycles with ovarian stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG) were recruited from lst January 2000 till 3lst December 2006. The pregnancy rate per cycle and per couple was 3.7% and 7.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis had determined three prognostic variables as regards pregnancy namely as duration of infertility a = 0.002), interval of menstrual cycle a = 0.00025) and sperm count a = 0.016). The percentage of women successfully pregnant after cycle one till cycle 5 IUI were ranging from 3.4% to 4.8%. Results showed that no pregnancy occurred after the sixth cycle of IUI. The result suggests that duration of infertility is of utmost important determinants of an infertile couple in view of IUI success rate.
 
 
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Keinginan kesuburan
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Azman, Nur Airena Aireen and
Aziz, Azlan and
Ismail, Najihah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The decline in fertility rates in Malaysia is happening rapidly and it is expected that the rate will reach the replacement level (replacement level = 2.1) in 2015. A woman's desire/decision to have a child has a direct impact on the fertility rate and population growth. Thus, the study aims to identify the factors that influence women's desire to have children or do not need to be implemented. Data and Methodology: This paper presents the preliminary findings of the study Fertility at the Crossroad: Children Now, Later or Never conducted by LPPKN in 2012. This study uses a cross -sectional survey design method with a focus on women in the reproductive age group. 15-49 years working in the public sector in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Selangor. The method of data collection was through face -to -face interviews and self -administered using a questionnaire. Through stratified sampling method, a total of 98 public sector agencies were selected. To achieve the objectives of the study, the data obtained were analyzed using Descriptive Statistics, Chi Square and Logistic Regression (Forward LR Method). The dependent variable studied was the desire to have children (0 = do not want more children, 1 = want more children). While there are nine (9) independent variables studied namely age, ethnicity, education level, job grade (Management and Professional/Support), income, number of childbirths, pregnancy history (miscarriage/stillbirth/abortion), fertility problems and The husband lives far away. Findings: In total, a total of 1,898 data for women working in the public sector were analyzed. A total of 75.9% of respondents have a desire to have children. The results of Chi -Square analysis showed that the variables of age, ethnicity, income, number of births, pregnancy history, fertility problems and husbands living far apart had a significant relationship with the desire to have children. However, there is no evidence to suggest that post grade has a relationship with childbearing desire. Logistic regression test (Forward LR Method) showed that 57.8% of the variation in women's desire to have children can be explained by four independent variables, namely fertility problems, ethnicity, age and number of births. Conclusion: The results of the study found that women's desire to have children can be considered high. To support women's desire to have children, various forms of assistance/support should be provided by the employer/government. Among the main assistance/support needed are childcare centers at work, holiday facilities to care for sick children, subsidized childcare costs and full-paid facilities for children in need of special care.
 
 
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Fertility transition in Asia in relation to family and population aging
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Gubhaju, Bhakta, B. and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2006
Abstract:  Declining fertility and increasing longevity have brought about remarkable shifts in the age structure of the population. Europe, Northern America and Australia/New Zealand initially experienced one of such inevitable demographic events, that is population aging. While the transition from the young-age population to the aging population occurred over a much longer period in the West, the speed of aging is much faster in low-fertility countries of Asia. This has now emerged as a new issue challenging many low-fertility countries in Asia, as it has implications for the family and caring for the older persons. This paper provides a general overview of the fertility transition in Asia and factors affecting the fertility decline. Focusing on low-fertility countries in Asia, the paper highlights the implications of low fertility on population aging. Various indicators of population aging, such as the changes in age structure, potential support ratio and feminization of the elderly population, are presented for a better understanding of the overall situation. Comparisons are made with Europe, Northern America and Australia/New Zealand to put forward the magnitude of the challenge. As the Asian region contains over 60 percents of the global population and has experienced a rapid decline in fertility, the absolute size of the older population is a major concern. While the overall population growth rate has been declining over time, the number of older persons is increasing at a rate at least twice as high. In addition to the increase in older persons, a gender disparity in the improvements in the life expectancy at birth is likely to be illiterate and living in poverty. Providing family support, health care and financial security are some of the contentious issues aging societies will face. There have been discussions concerning the possibility of increasing fertility in countries with below replacement fertility. It is, therefore, crucial for governments to plan for an aging society long before fertility reaches a very low level. Meanwhile, it is important for Asian countries to recognize the significance of aging problems and start formulating policies for the elderly given that it takes several decades for government old-age pension insurance schemes to mature and operate at full scale. It would be more difficult for families to care for their older members because families would be smaller, people would live longer and the migration of young adults would mean that families would fragment. the present trends present a major challenge to address the needs of families. It is, therefore, important to consider the present trends in designing social policies, put the family at the centre of any future social policy development and examine good national practices when designing a new approach to family policies.
 
 
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Country Statement (2)




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The 44th session of the Commission on Population and Development on agenda item 4: general debate on national experience in population matters: fertility, reproductive health and development, 11th April, 2011
Item Type: Country Statement
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  11/04/2011
Abstract:  Fertility among Malaysian women is declining faster than expected due to the increase in the average age at first marriage for women that has risen from 24.7 years in 1991 to 25.3 in 2004. Malaysia's total fertility rate (TFR) is expected to reach the replacement level by year 2015. With more and more women participating in the labour force and prioritising career development, this has also led to many highly educated women choosing to marry late or not to marry at all. Malaysia hopes to sustain the current fertility rate and not let it fall below replacement level. Sustaining the current TFR of 2.3 is one of the major challenges that has to be monitored as it can lead to contraction of labour supply, rapid aging of the population and other social implications.
 
 
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Infographic (4)


Newsletter (4)


Report (6)


Research Report (6)




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Laporan fertility at the crossroad-children now, later or never
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2018
Abstract:  This study was to identify the socio-economic and psychological factors that influence the decision of women working in the public and private sectors to want to have children now, postpone pregnancy or do not want to have another child/children. It also to identify forms of support that can be provided by employers in an effort to create a family -friendly work environment. Nowadays, the issue of declining fertility rates is becoming a global issue, not just in among developed countries even in developing countries. Most countries have experienced fertility decline since the 1970s. United Nations Projections (UN) indicates most countries in the Asia Pacific region will experience a decline total fertility rate (TFR) until 2015-2030. Countries like China, Japan and Singapore have achieved TFR below the substitution level for decades ago. Rapid socio -economic development in Malaysia over the past five decades has resulted in a decrease in births and deaths as well as an increase in migration. Malaysia is currently in the second phase of a demographic transition where fertility rates are increasing decreased while the percentage of the elderly population increased. Decrease in rate mortality and fertility are closely linked to improved quality of life giving significant impact on the growth and size of the Malaysian population.
 
 
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Effects of socio-demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors on semen quality of men attending the sub fertility clinic in National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Couples are considered infertile if they are unable to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sex. The impact of lifestyle and environment on human fertility may vary depending on aetiology, demographic characteristics, genetic variation and other factors. As used by previous researchers, semen parameters were used to measure male infertility. Therefore, a decrease in semen quality is considered as a major factor in male infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen_quality). Previous studies (Kidd et al.2001,Eskenazi et al.2003, de La Rochebrochard and Thonneau 2003) have found that older men tend to have lower semen quality than younger ones. Testicular hyperthermia (elevated temperature) also has been known to affect male fertility. Men who like taking hot baths or sit in a sedentary position for a long time are at risk of having infertility. The objectives of this study are to identify the relationship between socio-demographic profile, lifestyle and environmental factors and semen quality, and to identify risk factors of poor semen quality among men attending the National Population and Family Development Board's (NPFDB) Subfertility Clinic. This study was done in Andrology Laboratory, NPFDB. Five hundred men from couples having their first infertility consultation between September 2010 abd June 2011 were recruited. Each patient was required to register, deposit semen and fill in the quesstionnaire. Sperm concentration, morphology and motility from semen analysis were used to study the relationship between semen quality and independent variables. Reference limits used were 15 cells x 10'6/ml, 4% and 40 %, respectively (World Health Organization, 2010). For statistical analysis, descriptive statistic, t test and ANOVA were used; 0.05 alpha value was chosen. Results showed that one-third of the study population were between 26 to 30 years of age and another one third were aged between 31 to 35 years old; mean age was 33.2. majority were Malays (71.2%), resided in Selangor (64.3%) and professionals (41.6%). Semen quality showed a negative relationship (p<0.05) with age. Meanwhile, sperm motility varied significantly for different ethnic group. Chinese (57.75%) had the highest motile-sperm compared to Malays (53.44%) and Indians (46.60%). Among lifestyles variables, frequency of sexual intercourse had a posive relationship (p<0.05) with sperm motility, whilst sedentary position had negative relationship (p<0.05) with the latter. Regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors of poor semen quality. This study found that men above 30 years old were two times more likely to have low sperm motility than men in the twenties. Moreover, less frequent sexual activity between couples was more likely (p<0.05) to have abnormal sperm compared to those who had sexual intercourse more frequently. In conclusion, this study suggested that age over 30 years and infrequent sexual activity were the risk factors to lower semen quality. Even though not regarded as a risk factor, sedentary work position had a negative impact on sperm motility. These factors may affect male fertility and cause difficulty in conception. Public awareness through advocacy programs and talks on infertility and its risk factors should be carried out regularly. Public education should be carried out to advice men to practice a healthy lifestyle and work life balance. This study has shown encouraging results, and should be replicated in the general population in Malaysia
 
 
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Scientific Poster (2)


Thesis (2)




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Seroprevalence and factors associated with chlamydia trachomatis Infection among subfertile couples attending local public subfertility clinic
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Nekmat, Nily waheeda and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2020
Abstract:  Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the agents that cause the sexually transmitted infections called chlamydia. People practicing risky sexual behaviours such as having multiple sex partners, exercising sexual intercourse at an early age, and undergoing unprotected sexual intercourse (without condom) with casual partners, are at risk of getting Chlamydia trachomatis infection. One of the significant, long term implications of risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infection is infertility problems. The objectives of this study are to determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among subfertile couples (husband and wife) of The Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara (LPPKN) Subfertility Clinic and the factors associated with it (i.e. socio-demographic, duration of marriage, infertility factor, knowledge, attitude, practice of risky sexual behaviour (RSB) and predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection). The study is a cross-sectional study involving 112 infertile couples who underwent fertility treatment at LPPKN Subfertility Clinic from February 2018 until February 2019. Sociodemographic factors, duration of marriage, infertility factor, knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of risky sexual behavior (RSB) variables were determined via self-administered questionnaire that includes close ended questions. Meanwhile, Chlamydia trachomatis antigen and antibody (CT IgG) were determined via Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and rapid visual immunoassay test kit. This approach is selected to detect past and current infections of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibody and antigen detection in the blood serum, endocervical swab and urine samples. The response rate of this study was 97.39%. Majority of the respondents were aged between 25-34 years old and dominated by Malay ethnicity. Half of the respondents were among those with tertiary level of education and working in the private sector. In term of duration of marriage, half of the samples were couples who have been married for 3-7 years with majority of them had primary infertility. The female factor was reported to be the most dominant, followed by the unexplained factor and male factor. The seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among subfertile couples was 22.1% with 14.7% in husbands and 17.9 %, was reported among wives. In terms of knowledge, the results showed that most couples had high level of knowledge about risky sexual behaviours with a score of more than the mean (> 6) for both husbands and wives. Meanwhile, each husband and wife group had positive attitude towards risky sexual behavior. Approximately, 35.7% of husbands and 12.5% of wives were engaged with risky sexual behavior while a higher percentage of premarital sex was reported among the husbands compared to the wives. The chi-square results showed no association between CT status and socio -demographic factors, marital status and knowledge of RSB among subfertile couples. A significant association was recorded between CT and practices of RSB among couples (p< 0.05) particularly among those with multiple sex partners and husbands who had premarital sex (p<0.05). However, the Binary Logistic Regression analysis showed that none of the selected variables were significant predictors of CT status among the couples (p> 0.05). This study has determined that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (22.1%) and practices of risky sexual behavior among subfertile couples were high. Even though the results have shown no association between the dependent and independent variables, our finding has given an evidence based detection of past infection of Chlamydia trachomatis among subfertile couples. The practice of RSB has interrelated risk of getting CT and its long term consequences particularly on women reproductive system. Since the awareness on CT among public is considered low, it is crucial to sensitize them about it to ensure early detection and prevention. Therefore, CT screening is strongly recommended to be integrated in fertility work up. treatment and be promoted among sexually active adolescents and those young in age.
 
 
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