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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Reproductive Health"

2023 (6)




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The 56th Session of The Commission On Population And Development, United Nations New York, 10-14 April 2023
Item Type: Country Statement
Author: 
Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  11/04/2023
Abstract:  Education is a longstanding right enshrined in human rights and developmental instruments, including in the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The ICPD Plan of Action also recognizes the key role of education in sustainable development, as well as the responsibilities of different stakeholders, particularly parents, in this regard. Investments in education systems are of utmost importance for population growth, as it empowers people to lead better, healthier and sustainable lives. For Malaysia, the education system serves as a fundamental component in our quest to be a developed nation, and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Strengthening of human capital through education is a priority to Malaysia, with the Government providing free education to citizens up to secondary level.
 
 
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Enhancing Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia.,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2023
Abstract:  Polycystic ovary syndrome or known as polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder and one of the main causes of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age, which is 15 to 49 years (Balen et al., 2016). The main characteristics of women with PCOS are ovarian dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries (Balen and Michelmore., 2002). This syndrome is associated with metabolic syndromes such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 1 (Barthemess and Naz., 2014) and arteriosclerosis (Orio et al., 2004). The general objective of this study is to identify the demographic characteristics, clinical and medical history, of PCOS sufferers as well as appropriate treatment methods among clients seeking fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. This study is an experimental, case control study involving female clients who come to seek fertility treatment at the LPPKN Subfertility Clinic. The chosen location is LPPKN Headquarters, Kuala Lumpur. Every female client who attends needs to meet the patient selection criteria, namely a Malaysian couple, trying to conceive for more than a year and aged between 25 to 38 years old. Every patient who faces subfertility problem is divided into two groups, namely PCOS and no PCOS. Patients who are eligible and agree to participate in the study have gone through at least five (5) series of appointments with medical officers and nurses. A total of 167 patients participated in this study with an average age of 30 years.
 
 
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2022 (10)




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Dasar dan Pelan Tindakan Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial Kebangsaan (PEKERTI) 2022-2025
Item Type: Act & Policy
Author: 
Kementerian Pembangunan Wanita, Keluarga dan Masyarakat, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  08/09/2022
Abstract:  This new PEKERTI policy is applicable to every individual regardless of age and gender and takes into account ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. Focus will be given to producing a healthy population in terms of reproductive and sexual health based on high moral values and practicing responsible behavior and mutual respect for each other. This PEKERTI policy has been streamlined to achieve 5 objectives which are to (i) increase the awareness of Malaysians regarding the importance of reproductive and social health education, (ii) develop evidence-based reproductive and social health education programs, (iii) develop human expertise and modernity in aspects reproductive and social health education, (iv) carry out research in aspects of reproductive and social health education and (v) ensure programs and services under this policy are continuously monitored and evaluated. In order to achieve these 5 objectives that have been set, 5 Cores have been identified as policy implementation machinery namely (i) Advocacy, Promotion and Prevention, (ii) Comprehensive Reproductive and Social Health Education Covering All Age Levels, (iii) Human Capital and other Resources for Reproductive and Social Health education, (iv) Research and Development and (v) Monitoring and Evaluation.
 
 
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Peranan, tahap kesejahteraan, cabaran dan persediaan golongan wanita dalam menghadapi situasi pandemik Covid-19 di Malaysia: Hasil penemuan siri kajian tinjauan pendapat umum LPPKN
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Abdul Razak, Ahmad Rasyidee and
Abdullah, Muhamad Noh and
Mohammad Fuzi, Nur Ashikin and
Omar, Nor Ezdianie and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  26/02/2022
Abstract:  Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in the country since early 2020, the economy and community life have been severely affected. The increase in the number of daily cases as a result of several new waves of COVID-19 has also prompted the Government to implement a series of Movement Control Orders (MCO) nationwide. As a result, society, especially women, are seen to be increasingly stressed due to the loss of sources of income, limited involvement in outdoor activities and problems in balancing between work and family hours. Aware of this situation, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has taken the initiative to conduct a series of public opinion polls throughout 2020 and 2021. This study aims to explore the role, level of well -being, challenges and preparation of women in facing pandemic situations. COVID-19 in Malaysia. This study is an online survey study. The findings of this study are a reflection of the current situation of society and family institutions in the face of the new wave of COVID-19. The results of a survey that focused on women showed that women were more affected than men. Although the level of well -being of women in the country is still at a satisfactory level, various issues and challenges are faced especially for those who are married. Issues of family management, children's education at home and more flexible working hours should be highlighted for consideration by the Government. It is hoped that various initiatives and development plans related to women can be planned as well as further strengthen the existing policies towards achieving the aspirations of the Malaysian Family. In general, this paper contributes to the knowledge related to the current situation of women in the face of new normative life. While in particular, this paper contributes to knowledge related to the role, well-being, challenges and preparation of women in facing the COVID-19 pandemic situation.
 
 
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Statistik data perkhidmatan perancang keluarga LPPKN tahun 2015-2019
Item Type: Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2022
Abstract:  National Population and Family Development Board Malaysia (NPFDB) have prepared a statistic report on family planning services at the NPFDB level according to the number of new recipients, type of contraceptive, state, age group, ethnicity, strata and employment status for 2015 to 2019. This report only consist new recipients, which is new clients who have not registered with any of family planning agency such as NPFDB, Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysian Armed Forces (ATM) and Federation of Reproductive Health Associations Malaysia (FRHAM). The breakdown of statistic report by type of contraceptive have included implant, injection, condom, pill, intrauterine device and non-modern methods. Meanwhile, the breakdown of family planning data by age have covered the range of 15 years to 49 years. The breakdown of data by ethnicity also have included Malay, Chinese, Indian, other bumiputera and other ethnicities. These statistic data were also have provided by strata (urban and rural), employment status (employed and unemployed) and education breakdown including college/ university, secondary school, primary school and non formal education.
 
 
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2020 (1)




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Executive Summary: youth intervention study: best practices of youth intervention programmes in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/07/2020
Abstract:  In the decades, Malaysia has undergone rapid economic, social and cultural changes which impacted not only the daily lives of its people but also their worldview and values. This is particularly so for young people, as excessive exposure to information from the social media, internet and pornography had inevitably influence their lifestyle and behaviour. The socio-cultural changes are likely associated with an increased rates of non-marital sexual activity, increased rates of sex partner change and increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In 2005, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through NPFDB introduced the PEKERTI Programme to be implemented at KafeTEEN adolescents centres. The programme provides reproductive health services, counseling services and education and skill building to promote a healthy life and inculcate positive attitudes and moral values among young people.
 
 
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2019 (2)


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Differentials in sexual and reproductive health knowledge among East Malaysian adolescents
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Awang, Halimah and
Low, Wah Yun and
Wen, Tin Tong and
Lih, Yoong Tang and
Whye, Lin Cheah and
Helen, Benedict Lasimbang and
Mohd Hassan, Hamizah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2019
Abstract:  The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of East Malaysian adolescents on sexual and reproductive health issues. Data were collected in March–July 2015 from 2858 adolescents aged 13–18 years from selected East Malaysian secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Twelve items relating to sexual and reproductive health were used to measure respondents’ knowledge based on their responses ‘True’, ‘False’ or ‘Don’t know’, with the proportion of correct answers being the variable of interest. Cronbach’s alpha for the twelve items was 0.761 and the mean knowledge score was 6.8. While the majority of the respondents knew that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex with a man and that HIV and AIDS can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, knowledge about Malaysia’s abortion laws, that a woman can get pregnant if she has sex only once and that people with sexually transmitted infections may look healthy was poor. Older respondents and those from urban schools reported significantly higher knowledge than younger respondents and those from rural schools, respectively. More emphasis should be given in schools to the specific topics for which low levels of sexual and reproductive health knowledge were found, with greater attention being given to younger adolescents and those in rural areas.
 
 

2018 (1)




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Modul Cakna Diri Lelaki Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduksi dan Seksual Untuk Remaja Lelaki Berumur 16-24 Tahun
Item Type: Module
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2018
Abstract:  The Sexual and Reproductive Health Module for boys and young men age 16 to 24 years was developed to address sexual and reproductive health as well as social issues for boys and young men. It is also aim to create awareness on the importance of reproductive health and social education as well as gender equality for future well-being. This module is divided into two (2) main target groups i.e. general adolescents (Module A) and most-at-risk adolescents (Module B). The main components of Module A includes topics on adolescent growth, developmental, health, psychosocial - 3R (Respect, Relationship and Responsibility), laws and regulations, drugs and substance abuse. Module B covers topics on risky social behaviors, risky sexual behaviors and teen pregnancy. This module is developed as an interactive form using various learning methods such as role play, sketches, group work and discussions to attract participation of boys and young men.
 
 
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2017 (4)




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Kajian Pengesanan Mikrodelesi Kromosom Y dalam kalangan klien Infertiliti di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  The study "Microdelesi of Y Chromosome among NPFDB Infertility Clients" conducted by the Biomedical Unit, NFPDB is to identify infertility factors from a genetic aspect. Study samples were obtained from infertility patients referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory, NPFDB from 2003 to 2010. A total of 100 blood samples of clients diagnosed as azoospermia (48), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (24), oligozoospermia (15), severe oligozoospermia (6), Klinefelter Syndrome (3) and idiopathy (4) were performed Chromosome Analysis Tests to identify any abnormalities of the number and structure on the chromosome and subsequently Molecular Testing is performed to detect the microdeletion of the Y chromosome. Majority of ethnic groups involved in the study are Malays, which is 74 people (74%) followed by Chinese; nine (9) people (9%), Indians; seven (7) people (7%) and other ethnicities from Sabah and Sarawak as many as 10 people (10%) in the age range of 23 to 46 years.The chromosome analysis test results for the 100 samples were normal which is, 46, XY, no abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes were found. Results was found that 15 samples (15%) underwent Y chromosome microdeletion at the AZF locus in molecular test. From 15 samples, 10 samples were azoospermia, three (3) severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia samples and two (2) oligozoospermia samples. Each sample experienced deletion at different locus and there were samples that experienced multiple deletion which involved deletion of more than one factor locus (AZF).The most common AZF factors found to experience deletion were AZFc (73.33%) followed by AZFb (53.33%), AZFd (40%) and AZFa (13.33%). In conclusion, it was found that genetic factors are one of the causes of infertility problems among clients came for subfertility treatment. Looking at the importance of undergoing genetic screening testing at an early stage, it is recommended that this test be tested for men diagnosed with azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia at the Subfertility Clinic, NPFDB. The information obtained has prognostic value and influences the medical therapy chosen to assist in the clinical management of the client and his descendant in the future.
 
 
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Effects of socio-demographic, lifestyle and environmental factors on semen quality of men attending the sub fertility clinic in National Population and Family Development Board
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Couples are considered infertile if they are unable to conceive after one year of regular unprotected sex. The impact of lifestyle and environment on human fertility may vary depending on aetiology, demographic characteristics, genetic variation and other factors. As used by previous researchers, semen parameters were used to measure male infertility. Therefore, a decrease in semen quality is considered as a major factor in male infertility (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semen_quality). Previous studies (Kidd et al.2001,Eskenazi et al.2003, de La Rochebrochard and Thonneau 2003) have found that older men tend to have lower semen quality than younger ones. Testicular hyperthermia (elevated temperature) also has been known to affect male fertility. Men who like taking hot baths or sit in a sedentary position for a long time are at risk of having infertility. The objectives of this study are to identify the relationship between socio-demographic profile, lifestyle and environmental factors and semen quality, and to identify risk factors of poor semen quality among men attending the National Population and Family Development Board's (NPFDB) Subfertility Clinic. This study was done in Andrology Laboratory, NPFDB. Five hundred men from couples having their first infertility consultation between September 2010 abd June 2011 were recruited. Each patient was required to register, deposit semen and fill in the quesstionnaire. Sperm concentration, morphology and motility from semen analysis were used to study the relationship between semen quality and independent variables. Reference limits used were 15 cells x 10'6/ml, 4% and 40 %, respectively (World Health Organization, 2010). For statistical analysis, descriptive statistic, t test and ANOVA were used; 0.05 alpha value was chosen. Results showed that one-third of the study population were between 26 to 30 years of age and another one third were aged between 31 to 35 years old; mean age was 33.2. majority were Malays (71.2%), resided in Selangor (64.3%) and professionals (41.6%). Semen quality showed a negative relationship (p<0.05) with age. Meanwhile, sperm motility varied significantly for different ethnic group. Chinese (57.75%) had the highest motile-sperm compared to Malays (53.44%) and Indians (46.60%). Among lifestyles variables, frequency of sexual intercourse had a posive relationship (p<0.05) with sperm motility, whilst sedentary position had negative relationship (p<0.05) with the latter. Regression analysis was used to predict the risk factors of poor semen quality. This study found that men above 30 years old were two times more likely to have low sperm motility than men in the twenties. Moreover, less frequent sexual activity between couples was more likely (p<0.05) to have abnormal sperm compared to those who had sexual intercourse more frequently. In conclusion, this study suggested that age over 30 years and infrequent sexual activity were the risk factors to lower semen quality. Even though not regarded as a risk factor, sedentary work position had a negative impact on sperm motility. These factors may affect male fertility and cause difficulty in conception. Public awareness through advocacy programs and talks on infertility and its risk factors should be carried out regularly. Public education should be carried out to advice men to practice a healthy lifestyle and work life balance. This study has shown encouraging results, and should be replicated in the general population in Malaysia
 
 
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Kajian perbandingan penggunaan tiga jenis rawatan hormon FSH dalam kalangan pesakit subfertiliti yang menjalani prosedur permanian beradas di Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  02/01/2017
Abstract:  Since 1979, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been providing subfertility management services to the public especially middle-income group. In line with the rapid pace of the latest technology and research developments, there are various types of fertility drugs in the form of injections which had been used in subfertility treatment. The main function of this injection is to mature the follicles where the main hormone contained in this injection is the follicle stimulating hormone (Follicle Stimulating Hormone, FSH). In general, there are three types of FSH injections, which is a recombinant FSH (rFSH) that have 100 percent synthetic hormone, urinary FSH (uFSH) that derived from menopausal urine and highly purified urinary FSH (hp-uFSH) that also derived from menopausal urine but more pure state than uFSH. All three hormones have FSH’s activities but uFSH and hp-uFSH also have Luteinizing Hormone’s activity (LH). Thus, NPFDB has taken initiative to conduct a comparative study on the use of three types of FSH hormone treatment, namely Gonal F (rFSH), Folliova (uFSH) and Menopur (hp-uFSH), among subfertilitie’s patient who’s undergoing Intrauterine Insemination Technique (IUI). Among others, the three types of hormones were studied in terms of effevtivenee and cost burden. The study sample was from patients with unknown cause of subfertilitie’s problem and they visit NPFDB Subfertilitie’s Clinic, Headquarters, from June 2010 to May 2012. The sampling method was random. The patient and researcher do not know the treatment regimen to be initiated until a closed sample containing the treatment regimen code number is opened by the patient before starting treatment. Data were collected, recorded and anlyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Although originally a total of 90 female patients were targeted to be recruited into this study. 30 patients for each type of FSH hormone, but at the end of the study only 39 patients met all eligibility criteria and agreed to participate in this study. The result showed that average of the patients was 28.3 years and the majority were ethnic Malays (76.9%). Most of the patients had a household income between RM 5,000.00 and RM 10,000.00 (51.4%). The percentage of patients requiring more than three injections to procedure mature follicles was lowest for Folliova (41.7%), compared with Menopur (50.0%) and Gonal F (55.6%). Similarly in terms of the number of follicles produced, the Folliova regime (58.3%) produced more follicles (more than three follicles) than other regimes. A total of 16.7 percent of patients who took Menopur injections were confirmed pregnant, while no pregnany occurred among patients who took Folliova and Gonal F. In terms of cost, at the time of this study, the price of three 75IU injections was RM 334.20 for Gonal F, RM 187.20 for Folliova and RM 271.20 for Menopur. In conclusion, this study shows that, hp-uFSH (Menopur) gives the highest pregnancy rate compared to Gonal F and Folliova. Furthemore, the price of Menopur is moderate (affordable) for patients. Therefore, highly purified urinary FSH is a good gonadotropin choice for couples with unexplained subfertility undergoing an IUI procedure and it may be the main choice for patients who need a combination fertility pill stimulation regimen and gonadotropin injections. As a suggestion, such a study should be conducted with a larger sample size to obtain more significant results and be representative of actual population.
 
 
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2016 (4)




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Research on risk and protective factors affecting adolescents' sexual and reproductive health in Sabah & Sarawak 2015
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  09/09/2016
Abstract:  A quarter of the world population (1.8 billion) consists of people aged 10-24 years (UN DESA, 2009). Adolescents is a phase of life whereby they have opportunities for developing healthy behaviours, which can determine the future pattern of adulth health. However, for most adolescents, this is the phase of self-discovery whereby they undergo biological, psychological, social and economic changes in their life. Curiosity and experimentation are normal among them where certain behaviours would place adolescents at risk of undesired consequences of their activity. There are various biological, social, educational and psychological risk factors that predispose adolescents to unhealthy and unsafe sexual phenomena such as premarital sex, having multiple sexual partners, unwanted pregnancy, early childbearing and illegal abortion. In terms of biological factors, early menarche, being male men and older age were found to be the significant risk factors. In addition, social factors including unemployment, peer influence (peer/ friends who have had sexual experience) and use of the substance such as alcohol, tend to increase the tendency of unsafe and unhealthy sexual practices (WHO, 2004). Besides, lack of sexual reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationship, inaccessibility of youth-friendly SRH services are other risk factors that had been identified (Low, 2006). Although there is limited data on teenage pregnancy in Malaysia, the increasing reports on incidences of abandoned babies indicate that increased premarital sexual intercourse resulted in unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. From 2005 to March 2014, it was reported that there were 561 cases of baby dumping (RMP, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). the number of reports of abortion indicates that there is an increase in the number of extramarital sex among unmarried adolescents. Many 51 cases of infant abandonment were reported in 2005 to March 2014 (PDRM, 2014; Mansoor, 2014). In 2012, a study was conducted to identify the risk and protective factors of adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia (NPFDB, 2015). There has been a dearth of studies on adolescents’ SRH in Sabah and Sarawak. Therefore, studies on SRH among this sub-population are warranted. Furthermore, there are differences in terms of demographic characteristics compared to Peninsular Malaysia. Based on these findings, more specific educational and intervention programmes tailored to the needs of the adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak need to be planned and implemented in order to prevent them from engaging in risky sexual behaviours. The objective of this study was to determine the risk and protective factors related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) of adolescents in Sabah and Sarawak.
 
 
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2015 (3)




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Youth and sex information: who they refer to?
Item Type: Scientific Poster
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Abu Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq and
Author: 
Editor: 
, and
Year:  00/07/2015
Abstract:  Youths who involved in sexual behaviors can result in unintended health outcomes and put them at risk for HIV infection, sexuality transmitted infections (STIs), unintended pregnancy and very early childbearing. Factors associated to sexual risk behavior among youth are lack of sexual and reproductive health information and skills in negotiating sexual relationships, inaccessibility of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services and peer pressure (Kaestle et Al., 2005). Hence, it is clearly stated that our youths need access to protective information and skills before they become sexually active (Bleakley et al., 2010) Previous research shows significant results on various source of sexual and reproductive health information among youth such as friends, teachers, parents, peers, religious members and media (Gombachika et al.,2013; Kamrani et al., 2011; Bleaky et al., 2009) therefore, there is a need to know and do more address what kind of sources utilized by young people in getting information on sexual and reproductive health, in Malaysia specifically. The purpose of this study was to identify the individuals source of information related to sexual and reproductive health among Malaysia youth, as well as to examine the association of these sources with social demographic information.
 
 
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Faktor risiko dan pelindung terhadap kesihatan seksual dan reproduktif remaja di Semenanjung Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  In Malaysia, statistics from the National Registration Department (NRD) show that a total of 214,033 illegitimate children were born from 2004 to 2009. While statistics from the Royal Malaysia Police (RMP) show that 596 cases of baby abandonment were reported from 2005 to 2013. For the total number of rape crimes in among teenagers under the age of 18, PDRM statistics show an increase from 1,710 cases in 2006 to 2,658 cases in 2013. The increase in such cases shows that today's teenagers face the problem of moral decay and fragility of identity which is a concern of Malaysian society. Accordingly, knowledge of sexual and reproductive health can help adolescents avoid negative symptoms such as cases of extramarital pregnancies and social symptoms related to sexuality. The objective of this study was to (i). to study the prevalence of unhealthy sexual behavior among adolescents aged 13-24 years in peninsular Malaysia; (ii). identify risk factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH); and (iii). identify protective factors related to ASRH. This study was implemented using two (2) main approaches, namely quantitative and qualitative methods. The design of the quantitative study was successfully conducted on 5,088 adolescents aged 13 to 24 years. The qualitative study involved a total of eight (8) Focus Group Discussions (FGD) conducted in eight (8) selected detention centers and shelter hostels located in several states in Peninsular Malaysia.
 
 
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2014 (4)




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Kajian kesedaran dan pengetahuan orang awam mengenai infertiliti
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Shekh Abdullah, Faezah and
Harun, Rosliah and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  The infertility rate in Malaysia is estimated around 10 to 15 %. World Health Organization has classified infertility as a disease that needs attention as early as possible. It is one of the factors that contribute to decreasing total fertility rate. Public misunderstanding regarding infertility may affect on how they handle this issue. People always take this issue lightly since it is not a life-threatening disease, unlike heart attack, diabetes and cancer. The Bertarelli Foundation Scientific Board (1999) had found that infertility awareness was still low in a few countries in Europe, such as Belgium, Italy, France, Germany, Sweden and United Kingdom. Knowledge on infertility is very crucial because it helps couples to prepare when they are having difficulty in conceiving. The objective of this study was to identify our local people awareness and knowledge on infertility issues as very few studies have been done in Malaysia.
 
 
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Customer retention: a case study of LPPKN clinical services
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Sellamuthu, Rajen and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  This is a descriptive study intended to identify the main factors which contribute to the customer retention among the “Clinical Clients” of National Population and Family Development Board or LPPKN. The study focused on three variables to check on the level of influence, affect and effect to the process of customer retention. Those variables are service branding, perceived value and service quality. The study also covered the impact and influence of the demographic element to the service branding, perceived value and service quality in the process of customer retention. This study was conducted at the LPPKN Clinics in Klang Valley and Seremban. Understanding and fulfilling the customers need will contribute to retaining existing customers and reduce the customer switching intentions. The research findings show there is a positive relationship between perceived value and service quality with customer retention. Nevertheless relationship between service branding and customer retention is not supported for the LPPKN clinical setting. Analysis on the demographic factor showed that, it has a significant influence in regard to service branding, perceived value, services quality and customer retention. The output of the study will be helpful to managers and marketers of the clinical service to understand the customer needs, priority and expectations. Furthermore the findings of the research will enable the managers and policy makers to take necessary actions in their marketing and operational planning to stay competitive and maintain a stable income for a long term. This study will also help LPPKN Clinics to improve service quality, increase number of clinical clients, facilitate the process of customer retention and in long term improve financial performance.
 
 
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2012 (2)




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Kajian kesihatan reproduktif & seksual remaja
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Ahmad, Noor Ani and
Aris, Tahir and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The increase in reproductive and social health issues among adolescents has been hotly debated both nationally and internationally. Every day, Malaysians are presented with news on adolescent misconduct, especially those involving cases of abortion and out -of -wedlock pregnancies. Therefore, a specific study to look at the level of reproductive and sexual health of adolescents and the factors that influence it was conducted based on the results of the national level of adolescent health research. Methodology this cross -sectional study was conducted in 2010 using secondary data from the Adolescent Health Screening Form (BSSK/R/1/2008) which was filled by trainees of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) in 80 NSTP camps throughout the country. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi -square test and logistic regression using SPSS software. The parameters studied included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity and level of education) and social characteristics (risky behavior, history of abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse, religion, and family relationships). While there are nine (9) SRH issues that were studied, namely masturbation, watching pornography, extramarital sex, multi -partner sex, STIs, homosexual tendencies, homosexual relationships, pregnancy and abortion. Results A total of 23,231 data were analyzed. Of these, a total of 22,750 respondents aged 18-24 years were screened for the purpose of study analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the issue of watching and reading pornographic material among adolescents recorded the highest percentage (39.5%) followed by masturbation (28.5%) and extramarital sex (6.5%). All socio -demographic factors studied had a significant relationship with extramarital sex, homosexual predisposition and abortion (p <0.05). Risk factors for extramarital sex are the age group of 20-24 years (OR = 2.710, SK95% 1.967, 3.759), risky behavior (OR = 30.495 SK95% 19.683, 47.427), involvement in substance abuse (OR = 12.33 SK95% 8,051, 18,891), anti-social (OR = 2,615 SK95% 2,206, 3,100) and ever abused (OR = 1,726 SK95% 1,389, 2,145). While the appreciation of religion is a protective factor for adolescents where the study found that adolescents who appreciate religion are twice as likely to have sex compared to adolescents who do not appreciate religion. There is no evidence to suggest that familial relationship variables influence adolescents to have sex. Conclusion overall it can be concluded that adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues need to be given serious attention. This is because the results of the study show that the trend of extramarital sex among adolescents which is a key indicator of the level of adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues has increased from 2.2% in 2004 (MPFS-4) to 6.5% in 2010. Therefore, multisectoral cooperation programs are needed to address this issue. The implementation of intervention programs should also be focused on high-risk adolescents such as having risky behaviors, anti-social and involved in cases of substance abuse. The planning and preparation of the program must also take into account the concepts and teachings of religion practiced in Malaysia through an approach that can be accepted by adolescents. Further studies need to be conducted more extensively taking into account other factors that have yet to be explored.
 
 
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National experience in population matters: adolescents and youth
Item Type: Newsletter
Author: 
Author: 
Editor: 
Ismail, Siti Norlasiah and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Muda, Rozi and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Mazalan, Mohd. Firdaus and
Abdullah Daud, Noor Azizan and
Abdul Hamid, Azian and
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Adequate and accurate sexual and reproductive health information helps young people to make informed and responsible decisions. Howewer, cultural and religious sensitivities within the communities remain one of the major challenges in implementing reproductive health education for young people. Parents are still uncomfortable talking about reproductive health matters with their children ,leaving their children dependent upon information from their peers or other sources like the internet. The Government of Malaysia takes cognisance of the increasing importance of the sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents and youth in Malaysia. Hence, the Government of Malaysia has put in place various policies and programmes to handle the sexual and reproductive health needs of the adolescents and youths. One of the main initiatives is the Healthy Programme without AIDS for Youth (PROSTAR). The Government of Malaysia also has established six youth-friendly adolescent centres known as kafe@TEEN to increase access to reproductive health information and services for young people aged 13 to 24 years.
 
 
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2011 (2)




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Cytotoxicity and expression profiles of apoptosis gene related in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains AF2240 And V4-UPM
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Mohd Yussof, Mohd Azizuddin and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/01/2011
Abstract:  In this study the cytotoxicity and expression profiles of apoptosis gene related in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines in response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains AF2240 and V4-UPM were studied. NDV is a strain of avian paramyxovirus. NDV has been classified into the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Paramyxovirinae and genus Rubulavirus. NDV caused severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Several local strains of Newcastle disease virus were reported to induce cytolysis to the cancerous cell lines. Strain AF2240 is a heat resistant viscerotropic velogenic NDV and strain V4-UPM is a heat resistant lentogenic which has significant higher thermostabilities of infectivity and haemagglutination were reported cytolysis leukemic cells in vitro and has shown in vivo anti leukemic agents . In this study the cytotoxicity effects of strains of NDV AF2240 and V4-UPM towards HeLa cell were determined by using standard microtetrazolium assay (MTT). Cytotoxicity dose 50% (CD50) cells treated with different titre of NDV as haemagglutination units (HAU) as compared to the untreated cells was estimated at 72 hours post-infection. The CD50 values obtained were 0.95 HAU and 1.0 HAU for strains AF2240 and V4-UPM, respectively. No cytolytic effect was noted towards normal cells (3T3) was observed. Both strains were also observed to inhibit HeLa cell proliferation. Morphological observations also have been done under inverted light and fluorescence microscopes. Under the inverted light microscope, the HeLa cells treated with both strains showed apoptotic features such as cell shrinkage, cell blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. Morphological features of apoptosis were also observed by using the AO/PI staining method under the fluorescence microscope. The AO/PI staining demonstrated the occurrence of apoptosis which was characterised mainly by chromatin condensation, nuclear shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. Evidently, both strains AF2240 and V4-UPM used in the study were found to induce cells towards apoptosis rather than necrosis. NDV strain AF2240 and strain V4-UPM was also caused genotoxic in HeLa cells after two hours treatment with CD10 and CD25 values by alkaline comet assay. Results showed that HeLa cells treated with NDV strains AF2240, V4-UPM and hydrogen peroxide gave different distribution of scores. The HeLa cells treated with hydrogen peroxide as a positive control gave more percentage at score 2, 3 and 4 for both cytotoxicity values compared to the HeLa cells treated with NDV for both strains. Observation in this study has proved the genotoxic potential of the NDV strains AF2240 and V4-UPM to induce DNA damage on HeLa cells as early as two hours following treatment at very low cytotoxicity dose (CD10 and CD25) values. Meanwhile, the cell cycle analyses of HeLa cells treated with local strains of NDV AF2240 or V4-UPM did not induce cell cycle arrest in any specific phase. Sub-G1 phase (apoptosis peak) was found in both treated cells with a very high percentage compared to untreated cells with a small percentage. The results indicate that, the percentages of apoptosis were significantly increased (p≤0.05) in the time-dependent manner in both NDV strains treated HeLa cells. The molecular mechanisms of apoptosis may depend on the NDV strain and cell type. Six apoptosis genes were selected in this study namely Casp8, TNF-α, Bcl2 and TRAIL which focused on extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, while the gene Bax was used as an indicator for intrinsic pathway triggered by cellular stress. Lastly Myc, oncogene was used as an indicator for cell growth. From this study, NDV strain AF2240 was identified as a highly induced death receptor pathway due to the upregulation of TNF gene and the downregulation of Bax gene. Whereas NDV strain V4-UPM triggered both pathways but through the extrinsic pathway due to the very high expression of the TNF gene. The TNF gene was highly expressed due to its location and function as a stimulator of the death receptor pathway. The Casp8 gene was activated and expressed in order to enter the execution-phase of cell death. The Bcl-2 gene was continuously observed because of its function as an apoptosis regulator. Surprisingly, no expression was detected by the TRAIL gene. NDV strain AF2240 was more effective than NDV strain V4-UPM as an apoptosis inducer. These gene expression results showed that the apoptosis occurred and lead to cell death.
 
 
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Kajian Penilaian Modul Pendidikan Kesihatan Reproduktif dan Sosial (PKRS) dalam kalangan Pelatih PLKN
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2011
Abstract:  Adolescents are the future leaders of the country and have a huge influence on the social, economic and political situation of the country. However, with the presence of various social problems that plague teenagers today, it is feared that it will affect their future which in turn is detrimental to the country. The Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) has taken the initiative by developing the Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action Plan (PKRS) which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under this PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) is one (1) of the agencies that implement the program. In line with the implementation of this policy, the National Service Training Council has agreed with MWFCD's proposal for PKRS to be implemented in PLKN. Following that, NPFDB has implemented one (1) Pre and Post Test Study to trainees to assess the level of knowledge and perception on reproductive and social health before and after the teaching of this PKRS module is conducted. This study also aimed to examine the sexual and reproductive behaviors of trainees. This study was conducted in 2011 in a cross section on PLKN Trainees aged 17 years and above in selected National Service Training Camps in Malaysia using independent random sampling. The total sample required was 1,038 people. The calculation of this sample size is based on an estimated 31,200 PLKN trainees who are required to attend training using Confidence Interval (95%), Margin of Error (1.5%) and Prevalence of Having Sex Out of Wedlock Among Adolescents (6.5%), (Naing L, 2006). Questionnaires were developed according to the needs and objectives of the study. One-third of the questions of this questionnaire were adapted from an international study, namely the Youth Risk Surveillance Survey, 2011 but adapted according to the objectives of the study and the culture of the community in Malaysia. The method of questionnaire administration was self administered. The scope of the questionnaire covers three (3) domains namely demographic information, knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive and social health as well as adolescent sexual behavior. A total of 1,300 pieces of assessment forms (pre and post -test) were distributed during the first teaching session of the module. Of that number, only 1,063 forms were received for analysis. After the initial analysis was conducted, it was found that there were some questions that were not fully answered by the respondents. Therefore, the data analysis will vary according to the number of participants who answered for each section. In total, a total of 1,063 respondents were successfully covered in 13 training camps nationwide. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the respondents consisted of 57.8% male adolescents and 42.2% female. The majority of respondents were aged between 17 to 19 years (95.6%) with a mean age of around 18 years. Based on the ethnic composition, 66.7% are Malays, 15.3% Chinese, 4.2% Indians and 13.8% are other ethnicities including Sabah and Sarawak Bumiputera. Most respondents have SPM education (95.6%) and are unmarried (99.6%). The overall findings of the study can be summarized that the level of respondents' knowledge on reproductive and sexual health increased significantly (p <0.05) after undergoing the PKRS module with an increase in mean knowledge score of 7.04±2.2 (before undergoing the module) to 9.17±2.1. A total of 71.1% of respondents obtained a score of 9 out of 12 items (75.0%) and above after undergoing the module. There was a significant change in attitudes (p <0.05) on reproductive and social health after undergoing PKRS training. This indirectly shows that this PKRS module seeks to help respondents change their attitudes in a more positive direction. A total of 10.4% of respondents admitted to having had sex. The mean age of having sex for the first time is about 15 years. 45.5 percent of them had sex with more than one partner. Only 2.1 percent admitted to being sexually attracted to the same sex with 18.2% of them admitting to having had same -sex sex.
 
 

2010 (3)




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Kajian faktor-faktor penghalang wanita berkahwin menjalani ujian pap smear
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Cervical cancer is the second most dangerous threat to women that not only lead to a loss of pregnancy, but can even be life threatening. 12.9 percent of all cancer deaths among women are also due to this cancer. Unfortunately, 80% of women who are first diagnosed with cervical cancer are already at serious stage and cannot be treated properly even though cervical cancer screening programs such as Pap Smear have existed since 1943. Statistics released by the Ministry of Health Malaysia through the 2003 National Cancer Registry Report showed, even after the implementation of the Pap Smear program, the incidence rate of cervical cancer has increased where in 1990 the incidence rate was 13.3 per 100,000 women compared to 19.7 per 100,000 women in 2003. This illustrates that the Pap Smear program in Malaysia is not comprehensive and not practiced by those who need it which is women who have started sexual activity. Therefore, the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) has conducted a study in relation to cervical cancer screening or Pap Smear test. This study aimed to provide information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history, women’s awareness on pap screening tests, women’s risk perceptions of cervical cancer, women’s attitudes towards the importance of Pap Smear testing and prevalence of Pap Smear screening test practice. This cross -sectional study was conducted in the Klang Valley, Melaka, Perak and Terengganu using purposive sampling. The total sample was 1000 people. The study population consisted of once married women aged between 20-65 years. This includes married women, widows and widowers. The conditions for rejecting the sample are ineligible women, such as unmarried women, non-Malaysian citizens and women who have had cervical cancer. The collection of research data is through interviews based on the text of the questionnaire provided. Respondents will be interviewed by interviewers who have been trained to obtain accurate information. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi-square test and t test. Therefore, based on the analysis that has been conducted, the prevalence of female Pap Smear test is 55.2 percent. Respondents showed a positive attitude when asked about the importance of Pap Smear test compared to other examinations, many of whom thought that this test was very important (92.7 percent). Only 4.2 percent considered the Pap Smear test not important and there were a few who could not provide certainty about its importance (3.1 percent). Not many can measure the risk they are facing to get cervical cancer as 377 (41.5 percent) people are unaware of the cancer risk they are facing. However, there were a total of 276 (30.4 percent) women who were confident that they were not at risk at all. Only 7.7 percent received a high risk of this cancer, moderate risk (5.6 percent) and low risk (14.9 percent).
 
 
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A Study on health status of youth in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  This study analyzed health screening of 22,840 youths, who were distributed equally by ethnicity and camp sessions. Based on the analysis, 21.6% of youths were underweight, 18.1% pre-obese and 10.3% obese, with 0.3% perceived having body image disorders. With regards to sexual and reproductive health issues, 39.6% admitted viewing pornographic materials, 28.5% practiced masturbation, 6.5% engaged in premarital sexual relationships, 5.5% had multiple partners and 1.6% had been involved in homosexual relationships. History of abortion was discovered by 0.5% of the respondents. Almost a quarter of the youths were smokers, while 8.7% had consumed alcohol and 1.4% admitted taking drugs. The study also revealed that 6.2% of respondents reported to have past involvement in bully and 14.1% in fight. About 7.1% of the respondents revealed they had been physically abused while 1.2% of them had been sexually abused. Mental health problems were noted in 27.5% of the youths, with depression in 9.8% of the youths, anxiety in 20.7% and suicidal ideation in 11.8%. Psycho-social problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior, physical/sexual abuse and mental health problems among youth are interrelated with common risk and protective factors. Management of psycho-social problems in youths should be holistic; looking into risk and protective factors. Programs and interventions should focus on strengthening of protective factors among youth such as family connectedness and religiosity.
 
 
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Kajian Pendapat Remaja dan Isu Sosial : mencari penyelesaian
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2010
Abstract:  Introduction of Reproductive and Social Health Education Policy and Action of Plan (PKRS) has been developed which aims to produce individuals who are knowledgeable and have a positive attitude in the field of reproductive and social health. Under the PKRS program, the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB) has been given the mandate as the main agency in implementing the program. One of the programs is the Life Skills Program for teenagers which uses two (2) modules, namely the Cakna Diri Module (I’m In Control) and the Kesejahteraan Hidup Module. The purpose of this module developed is to improve adolescents' skills in aspects of reproductive health in order to avoid high-risk behaviors that lead to several problems such as premarital pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Therefore, an opinion poll was conducted to see the general view on social issues of adolescents, especially from the aspect of reproductive health and the implementation of the Life Skills Program for adolescents.
 
 

2006 (1)




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Tingkah laku seks di kalangan warga 45 tahun dan ke atas
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2006
Abstract:  An opinion survey on 'Sexual Behavior Among Citizens 45 Years and Above' which was first conducted by the Human Reproduction Division (BRM) was conducted in the Klang Valley area from February to June 2003. The 'Convenience Sampling' sampling method was used where respondents who meet certain criteria fill in the questionnaire themselves. A total of 473 respondents consisting of 50.1% Malays, Indians (26.6%) and Chinese (23.3%) where men (53.5%) outnumber than women (46.5%). The majority of respondents comprised the age group of 50-59 years (41.25%). From the 220 female respondents, only 7.3% took hormone replacement therapy. The results of the study found that the importance and satisfaction of sex decreases with age where it is more pronounced among women than men. The frequency of sexual intercourse is performed in the range of 4-8 times a month (46.3%). Although only 16.7% of respondents had sex-related problems, 70.9% of them did not know the source of help and treatment for their problems. Among those who received treatment, 56.4% chose to seek modern treatment. 55.7% of respondents with sexual problems have at least one chronic disease. A total of 85.6% disagreed and looked for another partner as a way out of sex -related problems. Expectations for better sex in the future are still high at 69.1%. In conclusion, for middle-aged and above despite the declining importance of sexual intercourse, their right to access to knowledge and services related to sexual problems needs to be addressed immediately, especially by medical practitioners, especially the Human Reproduction Division and LPPKN in general. A systematic and ‘gender-sensitive’ approach can help overcome the problem of family institutional breakdown and problems related to incest.
 
 
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1996 (1)




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The National Study on reproductive health and sexuality of adolescents in Malaysia 1994/1995
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1996
Abstract:  The National Study on Reproductive Health and Sexuality of Adolescents in Malaysia was initiated with the aim of formulating a National Programme on Reproductive Health for Adolescents. The specific objectives of the study are: i. to establish the status of the knowledge, attitude and practice of adolescents with regard to sexual and reproductive health, ii. to identify the constraints that adolescents face in seeking information and service relating to sexual and reproductive health, iii. to obtain the participation of adolescents in the design and implementation of programmes and activities for their own welfare. The single most expected outcome of the Study on Reproductive Health and Sexuality of Adolescents in Malaysia is a Cabinet memorandum which will propose appropriate policy and programme changes for the promotion and maintenance of optimal reproductive health among Malaysian adolescents geared towards the year 2020. This Memorandum will serve as a vital national reference and benchmark for evaluating future trends and patterns. It will be the basis for the reorientation of values, attitudes and approaches for the management of sexuality and reproductive health of adolescents in the country.
 
 
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1987 (2)


1983 (3)