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Results for Item type : "Thesis"
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Seroprevalence and factors associated with chlamydia trachomatis Infection among subfertile couples attending local public subfertility clinic
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Nekmat, Nily waheeda and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2020
Abstract:  Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the agents that cause the sexually transmitted infections called chlamydia. People practicing risky sexual behaviours such as having multiple sex partners, exercising sexual intercourse at an early age, and undergoing unprotected sexual intercourse (without condom) with casual partners, are at risk of getting Chlamydia trachomatis infection. One of the significant, long term implications of risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infection is infertility problems. The objectives of this study are to determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among subfertile couples (husband and wife) of The Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara (LPPKN) Subfertility Clinic and the factors associated with it (i.e. socio-demographic, duration of marriage, infertility factor, knowledge, attitude, practice of risky sexual behaviour (RSB) and predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection). The study is a cross-sectional study involving 112 infertile couples who underwent fertility treatment at LPPKN Subfertility Clinic from February 2018 until February 2019. Sociodemographic factors, duration of marriage, infertility factor, knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of risky sexual behavior (RSB) variables were determined via self-administered questionnaire that includes close ended questions. Meanwhile, Chlamydia trachomatis antigen and antibody (CT IgG) were determined via Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and rapid visual immunoassay test kit. This approach is selected to detect past and current infections of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibody and antigen detection in the blood serum, endocervical swab and urine samples. The response rate of this study was 97.39%. Majority of the respondents were aged between 25-34 years old and dominated by Malay ethnicity. Half of the respondents were among those with tertiary level of education and working in the private sector. In term of duration of marriage, half of the samples were couples who have been married for 3-7 years with majority of them had primary infertility. The female factor was reported to be the most dominant, followed by the unexplained factor and male factor. The seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among subfertile couples was 22.1% with 14.7% in husbands and 17.9 %, was reported among wives. In terms of knowledge, the results showed that most couples had high level of knowledge about risky sexual behaviours with a score of more than the mean (> 6) for both husbands and wives. Meanwhile, each husband and wife group had positive attitude towards risky sexual behavior. Approximately, 35.7% of husbands and 12.5% of wives were engaged with risky sexual behavior while a higher percentage of premarital sex was reported among the husbands compared to the wives. The chi-square results showed no association between CT status and socio -demographic factors, marital status and knowledge of RSB among subfertile couples. A significant association was recorded between CT and practices of RSB among couples (p< 0.05) particularly among those with multiple sex partners and husbands who had premarital sex (p<0.05). However, the Binary Logistic Regression analysis showed that none of the selected variables were significant predictors of CT status among the couples (p> 0.05). This study has determined that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (22.1%) and practices of risky sexual behavior among subfertile couples were high. Even though the results have shown no association between the dependent and independent variables, our finding has given an evidence based detection of past infection of Chlamydia trachomatis among subfertile couples. The practice of RSB has interrelated risk of getting CT and its long term consequences particularly on women reproductive system. Since the awareness on CT among public is considered low, it is crucial to sensitize them about it to ensure early detection and prevention. Therefore, CT screening is strongly recommended to be integrated in fertility work up. treatment and be promoted among sexually active adolescents and those young in age.
 
 
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Study on the relationship between physical work environment, compensation system, promotion opportunity and work performance amongst employee in banking industry in Klang Valley
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Ismayatim, Shafareeza and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/02/2011
Abstract:  This study focusing on the relationship between physical work environment, compensation system, promotion opportunity and work performance of the employee's in the banking industry. This study is conducted among six (6) commercial banks located in Klang Valley. The study use qualitative method, in which questionnaire was given to the respondent to get their views on the study. As for this study, the six selected banks and employees were chosen using the simple random sampling method. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed to the employees and 120 questionnaires were returned and usable for further analysis. This study used Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 18.0 to analyze the data. The study found that physical working environment, compensation system and promotion opportunity have a positive relationship with the employee's work performance. All of the elements had only a low level significance relationship with work performance. However, from the three elements, promotion opportunity was the highest significance level of relationship, followed by the physical work environment and lastly the compensation system. This means that employee's work performance thus not much affected by the physical work environment, compensation system and promotion opportunity that organization have provided or introduced.
 
 
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Socio-economic correlates of fertility in Peninsular Malaysia
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/04/2009
Abstract:  The main aim of this paper is to examine the fertility trends and differentials among Peninsular Malaysia women based on the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey (MPFS-4) according to selected socio-economic variables which were found to have significant effect on number of children ever born. Findings from the study reveal that mean number of children ever born has dropped from 4.2 children in 1974 to 3.6 children in 1984, 3.4 children in 1994 and continued to decline to 3.1 in 2004. Fertility level is highest among Malays, who resides in rural areas, eastern region, lower educational level, women who had never worked, women whose husbands worked in agricultural sector and family income less than RM1000 a month. Socio-economic variables can only affect the fertility level through the intermediate variables such as postponement of marriage and use of contraception. There is an upward trend in age at first marriage from 17.6 years in 1974 to 22.0 years in 2004. Marriage postponement is more pronounced among highly educated Chinese women, followed by the Indians and the Malays. The contraceptive prevalence rate was highest among Chinese, followed by the Indians and the Malays. Ethnic differentials in number of children ever born are rather pronounced. In the multivariate context, after adjusting for age and age at first marriage, the differential in the mean number of children ever born among ethnic groups remain discernible. The socio┬Čeconomic variables have different effects on the fertility level of each ethnic group. 'Region' emerges as the most important predictor of Malay fertility, while 'work pattern' and 'family income' is the most important predictor of Chinese and Indian fertility respectively. Based on the present trend, it is highly likely that the fertility will reach replacement level by 2020, and the 70 million population target is unlikely to be achieved through natural increase. There is a need for the government to give some attention to the trend in delayed and non-marriage as this will determine to a large extent the future course of population growth in Malaysia.
 
 
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