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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Population"

2023 (4)


2022 (12)


2021 (14)




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Pemerkasaan wanita melalui program wanita Malaysia Revolusi Industri (IR4.0) bebas jenayah siber
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Mohd, Masnizah and
Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Norul Huda and
Paiza@Fauzi, Wan Fariza and
Mohd Yusof, Siti Baizura and
Kadri, Atikah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  Sustainable national development needs to take into account the cyber well-being of the population, especially empowering women who are often the victims. Various cybercrime issues such as cyber harassment, cyberbullying, cyber stalking and criminal intimidation, under the scope of gender-based violence, online have largely involved women as primary victims. The gender power imbalance that exists in a society where usually, men are considered the dominant gender while women are considered the submissive gender. This has motivated the need to develop a form of training program that focuses on gender equality and women’s empowerment in cyber security. Therefore, this study aims to develop a cyber security training program called the Bengkel Wanita Malaysia Revolusi Industri (IR4.0) Bebas Jenayah Siber (Sibernita).
 
 
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Empowering single mothers through institutional support: lessons from single mothers in Sabah
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Topimin, Salmah and
Hasan, Haslinda and
Fabeil, Noor Fzlinda and
Yee, Beatrice Lim Fui and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/12/2021
Abstract:  Life can be challenging for single mothers. They are viewed as the most vulnerable social groups in society who often lack educational attainment, skills and social networks; thus, limiting their opportunities to compete in the labour market. Consequently, single mothers struggle to achieve financial independence and to support the well-being of their family. To help single mothers build a better life, it is crucial to provide single mothers with solid institutional support programmes. This paper explores the extent to which the institutional support programmes designed for single mothers are in accordance with the needs and expectation of the single mothers in Sabah. The views obtained from the leaders of the single mother associations show that the support programmes are useful for single mothers; however, the programmes are still inadequate to lift them out of poverty. Suggestions for improvement of the institutional support programmes for single mothers are highlighted.
 
 
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2020 (4)




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Subjective well-being of the Malaysian citizen: preliminary development of survey instrument
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Azizan, Nurul Hafizah and
Mahmud, Zamalia and
Rambli, Adzhar and
Abdullah, Nik Nairan and
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/03/2020
Abstract:  A questionnaire is a well-known measurement instrument used by most of the researchers when conducting a survey. It is a powerful tool for collecting data in survey research. It should be noted that the quality of a measurement instrument used plays a key role in ensuring the quality of data gained in the survey. Therefore, it has become essential for the researchers to carefully design their questionnaire so that the quality of the data obtained can be preserved. Then, it is also vital for the researchers to assess the quality of the data obtained before it can be successfully used for further analysis. This article discussed an early process involved in development of the survey instrument for the purpose of assessing subjective well-being of the Malaysian citizen. These include operationalization of definition, identification of the important dimension and indicators of subjective well-being, rating scale and content validity of the items with the experts.
 
 
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2019 (8)




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2005-2019 NPFDB research activity report
Item Type: Book
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2019
Abstract:  This report highlights the research programmes and activities conducted by NPFDB over the past 15 years. One of the primary functions of NPFDB is to identify, promote and conduct research and studies on population, family development and reproductive health. NPFDB is responsible to advise the government on matters relating to policies and programmes through the findings of research in these three thematic areas. The Board established the Research Committee in 2009 to identify priority research, provide guidance and monitor the research activities in NPFDB. The first Research Committee meeting was held on 13th January 2010 comprising of selected NPFDB Board Members including Associate Professor Tey Nai Peng as Chairman (University of Malaya), Associate Professor Normah Mohd Dali (MARA University of Technology), Datuk Dr. Zulkifli Haji Ismail (Selangor Medical Center), Associate Professor Siti Hawa Ali (University Science Malaysia), Dato’ Dr. Kamaruzaman Ali (FRHAM) and Mr. Lee Wee Min (Focus on the Family) and several division directors of NPFDB.
 
 
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2018 (8)




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Laporan fertility at the crossroad-children now, later or never
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2018
Abstract:  This study was to identify the socio-economic and psychological factors that influence the decision of women working in the public and private sectors to want to have children now, postpone pregnancy or do not want to have another child/children. It also to identify forms of support that can be provided by employers in an effort to create a family -friendly work environment. Nowadays, the issue of declining fertility rates is becoming a global issue, not just in among developed countries even in developing countries. Most countries have experienced fertility decline since the 1970s. United Nations Projections (UN) indicates most countries in the Asia Pacific region will experience a decline total fertility rate (TFR) until 2015-2030. Countries like China, Japan and Singapore have achieved TFR below the substitution level for decades ago. Rapid socio -economic development in Malaysia over the past five decades has resulted in a decrease in births and deaths as well as an increase in migration. Malaysia is currently in the second phase of a demographic transition where fertility rates are increasing decreased while the percentage of the elderly population increased. Decrease in rate mortality and fertility are closely linked to improved quality of life giving significant impact on the growth and size of the Malaysian population.
 
 
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Analisis situasi kependudukan dan kekeluargaan di Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2018
Abstract:  The evolution of population and family policy in this country has begun since the implementation of the National Family Planning Programme by the National Family Planning Board (NFPB) in 1966. The main purpose of the programme was to reduce the population growth rate from 3% to 2% by 1985. Apart from Malaysia, other Asian countries also introduced a family planning programme to its population in the 1960s where the earliest country to introduce the programme was India around the 1950s. As a result of the introduction of the family planning programme in the 1960s, the country’s gross birth rate has decreased from 36.7 babies in 1966 to 31.5 babies per 1,000 population in 1985. This directly makes the average annual population growth rate of the country declined from 3.0% per annum in 1966 to 2.8% per annum in 1980.
 
 
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2017 (4)




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Report on Malaysian Family Well-Being Index 2016
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2017
Abstract:  The NPFDB (2011) defined family well-being as a safe, healthy, comfortable, harmonious and satisfying family condition. This definition covers various aspects, such as spiritual satisfaction and comfort in respect of their economy and finance; mental, psychosocial, and health; political: and sustainability. Family Well-Being Index (FWBI) 2016 measured the level of family well-being through a household's assessment by the father or mother regarding the well-being of their families. This index examined the level of well-being in terms of family relationships, family economy, family relationships, family economy, family health, family safety, family and community involvement, religious and spiritual practices, housing and the environment, and family and communications technologies in the country. The overall FWBI 2016 score was 7.33 out of a maximum score of 10.
 
 
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2016 (8)




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The 49th session of the Commission on Population and Development on agenda item 4: general debate on national experience in population matters: "strengthening the demographic evidence base for the post - 2015 development agenda", New York
Item Type: Country Statement
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2016
Abstract:  The Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) has been responsible for undertaking the Population and Housing Censuses of Malaysia every years since 1970. The Census remains the main source of data collection aimed at providing a comprehensive set of statistical information about the population in the country in terms of its size and spatial distribution, its demographic, social and economic characteristics as well as housing stock at a specific time reference. The census provides essential information not only for policy development and planning, but also for managing, monitoring and evaluating programs and activities across a broad spectrum of sectors. The 2010 Census round utilized improved ICT technologies and new approaches in the different phases of the census operation. The emerging technologies are transforming the way the Census is conducted in terms of operations management, quality assurance, data capture, mapping (GIS, GPS), data processing and storage. With the ever increasing individual privacy and accessibility of internet, the e-Census was introduced in 2010. An internet based questionnaire for data collection, was found to be more effective to capture respondents mainly in large urban areas and the gated communities.
 
 
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Report on key findings Fifth Malaysian Population and Family survey (MPFS-5) 2014
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2016
Abstract:  The 2014 Malaysian Population and Family Survey is the fifth in a series of surveys conducted by the NPFDB every 10 years since 1974. This fifth survey was funded by the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department under the 10th Malaysia Plan allocation. In conducting the survey, the NPFDB received tremendous cooperation and support from various agencies at federal and state levels as well as from nongovernmental organisations. The purpose of this survey was to collect the latest information and time series data in respect of demography, family and reproductive health of the Malaysian population. It also aimed to update the indicators obtained based on the previous surveys in the series. The MPFS-5 provides specific information on the population, household, family formation, fertility, family planning, family life, health practices, elderly as well as the social and sexual behaviours of the adolescents. It also collected the latest information on career and family balance, well-being, breastfeeding, secondary infertility, financial management, intergenerational assistance and the use of social media.
 
 
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2015 (4)




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Unmet fertility desires: a case study among working women in Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya
Item Type: Scientific Poster
Author: 
Ismail, Najihah and
Hashim, Mohd Shukri and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  Malaysia population will be estimated to reach aging population by 2035. This projection was inflated by many factors. One of the factors that influence the demographic changes is fertility. Malaysia is already at the level of substitute of total fertility rate (TFR) and this number was decreasing by time. From previous studies showed that fertility desires can predict the subsequent fertility behavior. There is always a disjoint between desired and actual family size. The difference between the actual number of children and the desired number of children is called unmet fertility desired. Since Malaysia is having a declining Total Fertility Rate (TFR), the dynamics of the difference between actual number of children and the desired number of children must be examined. Past research on fertility desires found that the rising age at marriage, economic factors, infertility, and social factors were the important factors that will affect the fertility desired. Also, education level, early and late childbearing, locality and household income influenced the unmet fertility desires.
 
 
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Measuring Malaysian well-being through the personal well-being index (PWI): findings from the fifth Malaysian Population and Family Survey, 2014
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mahpul, Irwan Nadzif and
Abdul Hamid, Azian and
Shafiai, Raudhatul Mahfuzah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  The aim of this study is to measure the well-being of Malaysian population through the use of PWI scale developed by the International Wellbeing Group (IWbG). Responses on the PWI scale were collected from over 10,000 adults aged 18 to 59 drawn from a sample of 18,852 living quarters throughout the country. Through the MPFS-5, the Personal Well-Being Index for the Malaysian was recorded at 7.71 out of a maximum score of 10. Out of the eight domains identified, the Spirituality or Religion domain recorded the highest score of 7.56. It then followed by the domain scores of Personal Relationships (7.54), Community-Connectedness (7.52), Personal Safety (7.35), Personal Health (7.10), Future Security (6.96), Standard of Living (6.58) and Achieving in Life (6.56).
 
 
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Family Well-Being Index Report Malaysia 2011
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  In the past few decades, Malaysia has and is still undergoing a process of rapid social and economic development. This is a result of policies implemented by the government such as the New Development Policy (1991-2000), National Vision Policy (2001-2010) and Government Transformation Programme (2010-2020) which all aim to transform Malaysia into a developed and competitive country. However, the processes has imposed increased demands on the family institution because of the responsibilities and the challenges faced by the family itself. The family institution must be strengthened to offset the rapid process of social and economic development. This is important because family is the basic social unit which prepares and supplies human capital resources for national development. Given the importance of family well-being to the future of the country, a scientific study needs to be conducted to measure the level of well-being of families in Malaysia. Measuring family well-being is crucial as it can indirectly measure the impact of the implementation of national social and economic development policies on families and the extent to which the implemented policies and programmes are successful or otherwise. Hence, this study has identified suitable indicators that can provide information about the well-being of families in Malaysia. Subsequently, based on the identified indicators, a Family Well-Being Index (FWI) was developed to measure the current well-being of the family as well as to be used in policy formulation, planning for implementation of future research, the development of new programmes and services, and expansion of the existing programmes.
 
 
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2014 (11)




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Population and Family Policies in Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ismail, Siti Norlasiah and
Mohammad, Ahmad Hashimi and
Muda, Rozi and
Wan Jaffar, Wan Hashim and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  26/06/2014
Abstract:  One of the objectives of development in the country is to improve the quality of life for all the people. Therefore, populations are at the core of development. Understanding demographic trends provides policy-makers with the tools to design interventions that lead to development especially in social sectors (family, health, education and labour) and providing infrastructure services. Knowledge on the population is crucial for planning resource allocation and designing appropriate policies. This paper intends to provide a review of population trends and population-related policies in Malaysia.It considers descriptions of Malaysia demographic changes, and then turns to the 1966 family planning programmes, the 70 million Population Policy in 1984 and to the recent Family Policy. This paper also attempts to provide insight into these policies by their evolutions, patterns and approaches, characteristics and provide recommendations for the future challenges.
 
 
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Population change and environmental issues in Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Adnan, Ahmad Hezri and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  Human influence on ecological footprint was negligible for thousands of years until population numbers started to increase dramatically. For instance, prior to the Industrial Revolution, the forests of many European countries were cleared mainly for subsistence, with little effect on ecosystem functioning. By the late 17th century, the fall in mortality and higher birth rates had catalysed the spread of settled agriculture with a rapid decline in Europe's forest cover. The population growth also triggered migration within Europe. When some natural resources fell into short supply, European powers started to search other parts of the New World. These explorations later on resulted in migration not just for subsistence, but also for settlements, agriculture and industry. This presentation will explains about population change and environmental issues in Malaysia.
 
 
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Population, human capital and development: the Malaysia experience
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Cheong, Kee Cheok and
Goh, Kim Leng and
Noh, Abdillah and
Singaraveloo, Kuppusamy and
Lee, Hwok Aun and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  Like other countries in East and Southeast Asia, Malaysia has undergone a rapid demographic transition to low fertility. This has meant a growing share of the economically active population that will eventually peak as ageing becomes more pronounced. The potential increase in the labor force has been undermined by both rising enrollment in upper secondary and tertiary education, as well as by many females remaining outside the labor force. Together with high economic growth, this has created a shortage of labor. Immigrant labor, both legal and illegal, has stepped in to fill the gap but entrenched a low labor cost model. Breaking out of this requires strengthening the country’s human capital base. While generous government expenditure and liberalization of the education sector has resulted in significant gains in numbers enrolled, several factors have had a negative effect on education quality. Unless reversed, this deterioration has long-term implications for the country’s development.
 
 
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Assessment of the status of implementation of the ICPD-POA
Item Type: Newsletter
Author: 
Author: 
Editor: 
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Wan Jaffar, Wan hashim and
Azman, Nur Airena Aireen and
Mohammad, Ahmad Hashimi and
Mazalan, Mohd. Firdaus and
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 was a landmark in the population and development field. At this conference 179 countries, including Malaysia, adopted a 20-year program of action known as the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD-PoA). The overriding objective is to raise the quality of life and individual wellbeing and to promote human development by recognizing the complexity of the interrelationships between population and development. Malaysia has achieved most of the goals set in the ICPD-PoA. Key enabling factors such as political stability, efficient civil service, harmonious social environment, unity and strength in diversity, educated and trained workforce, abundant natural resources and effective partnership with stakeholders and NGOs contributed to the success.
 
 
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2013 (8)




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Migration in Malaysia: social and family impact
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Doshi-Gandhi, Anjli and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Azman, Nur Airena Aireen and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2013
Abstract:  This paper highlights the key findings from surveys done by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development (MWFCD) and the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB). The Survey on the Implications of Employing Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDH) on the Family Institution in Malaysia was conducted by the MWFCD in 2009. The study found that many families rely on FDH for child care and domestic work. Some of the families find that having a FDH has a negative effect on their family relationships while some have no problems with it. The study on Indonesian Migrants in Tawau, Sabah conducted by the NPFDB in 2010 found that the local community in Sabah felt that the presence of Indonesian migrants in their community had both positive and negative effects. The effects of migrants were studied from the perspective of economy, education, health, safety, culture, housing and neighbourhood.
 
 
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International migration between ASEAN Australia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Hugo, Graeme and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2013
Abstract:  International migration is an increasing influence in ASEAN. The 2013 United Nations Population Report indicates that ASEAN had the third fastest growing international migration currently of all world regions over the 2000-13 period. This presentation examines the global context in which this increase in mobility is occurring. It summarises the main elements in this increased importance of migration. It focuses then on recent developments in the migration relationship with Australia. Australian international migration data is of very high quality and allows the movement between ASEAN countries and Australia to be qualified. It detects permanent immigration and emigration as well as non-permanent moves. It is demonstrated that the migration relationship between ASEAN and Australia is emphatically an interacting one. It is a system rather than a south-north movement. The characteristics of migrants are examined and issues of brain drain addressed. The paper considers some policy dimensions of the migration relationship for development in ASEAN.
 
 
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Current trends in transnational population flows in Malaysia: Issues, policy and challenges
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Kassim, Azizah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2013
Abstract:  In the last 40 years there has seen a substantial increase in Malaysia’s foreign pop. According to the last National Census in 2010, out of a pop of 28.4 million, over 8.3% are non-citizens. The increase is mainly the result of labour inflow since the early 1970s due to Malaysia’s relatively better economic development and political stability which attract economic migrants and asylum seekers from within and outside the ASEAN region. This paper which focuses on current transnational flows in the country has the following objectives: 1. To provide an overview of transnational population flows in Malaysia in the last decade and identify major streams that are causing considerable concern to the state and the Malaysian public. The focus is on the low skill foreign workers, the largest category of migrants in Malaysia. 2. To examine public perceptions of foreign workers, how such perceptions are formed and what their impacts are on state policy. 3. To discuss the state policy on foreign workers, both legal and irregular, the objective of the policy and its strategies. 4. To highlight the challenges faced by the state in implementing the foreign worker policy. 5. To evaluate the achievement and shortcomings of the policy. The writer identifies five types of transnational inflows into Malaysia i.e. that of low skill migrant workers both legal and irregular; asylum seekers; expatriates; foreign students; and participants of Malaysia’s My Second Home (MM2H) project.
 
 
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2012 (15)




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Population ageing and social protection in Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Abd. Samad, Suhaimi and
Awang, Halimah and
Mansor, Norma and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  With rapid increase in number of older persons, Malaysia is faced with multitude issues of graying population resulting from declining birth rate and rising life expectancy. In 2010 4.7% of the population was above 65 years old and the life expectancy was 71.7 years for males and 75 years for females. The New Economic Model for Malaysia (NEM) 2010 defines inclusiveness, high income and sustainability, as the three prong objective towards a developed nation in 2020. The underlying principle of the inclusiveness objective is to enable every Malaysian to have access to opportunities in order to contribute to the economy and to ensure that essential needs of the people are met. At least ten policy measures were recommended to improve the well being of the bottom 40% of the population, which has been identified as underserved. The question is, to what extent is the existing social safety net policy adequate to support every Malaysian to sustain a decent living? What are the issues and gaps with social safety net for older people? This paper attempts to answer these questions and to examine other related issues. It is divided into three parts: the first parts is an assessment of the existing social safety net in Malaysia; the second part looks at some case studies of NGO’s working with the older people and the final part offers some policy recommendations as a way forward.
 
 
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Financing old age in a rapidly ageing high income city state: the case of Singapore
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Asher, Mukul G. and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Singapore, an affluent city state, is among the most rapidly ageing society globally. This is due to low fertility rate (TFR of 1.2 in 2011); and increasing life expectancy (18.3 years for men and 21.8 years for women at age 65 in 2011). Its support ratio (working age persons/elderly) is projected to decline from 7.9 in 2011 to 2.2 by 2030, representing a steep decline. It primarily relies on a mandatory savings tier to finance old age. This tier is administered by a statutory Board called Central Provident Fund (CPF) under the Ministry of Manpower. The CPF has over the years been used not just for retirement, but for housing health care, and other purposes. Its wide scope and mandate has resulted in considerable complexity. This paper provides an assessment of the extent to which the current old age financing arrangements are likely to address longevity, inflation, and survivors’ risks faced by individuals in their old age. Not only each person will need support for a longer period in old age, but societal and individual expectations about old age support are also changing, reflecting the affluent society.
 
 
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Indikator kesejahteraan keluarga
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Family well-being is a multi-dimensional concept that covers various aspects of an individual or family's living situation. To date, there is no specific measure that can describe the state of family well -being in Malaysia. Thus, the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development through the National Population and Family Development Board (LPPKN) and the International Islamic University of Malaysia (IIUM) has implemented a research project called the Study of Family Well -Being Indicators in 2011 to understand more comprehensively about family well -being where at the end of this project, an index will be developed. In total, after going through several formative processes such as literature review, focus group discussion and pilot study, there are 7 domains and 23 indicators have been identified. The development of such domains and indicators of family well-being has focused on subjective well-being where each family is asked to provide an assessment on certain aspects related to their family. The study was conducted on 2,808 households involving a total of 5,616 respondents, consisting of 1,484 fathers, 1,324 mothers and 2,808 adolescents aged between 13 to 24 years. The selection of households in this study has used stratified random sampling method and done by face -to -face interviews. The results show that the Family Well -Being Index is at 75.5 which means that the well -being of Malaysian families is quite high. The Family and Religion/Spirituality domain recorded the highest domain score of 82.5. This was followed by the domain scores Family and Community (78.3), Family Relationships (78.2), Family Safety (73.9), Family Health (73.8), Family and Environment (72.8) and Family Economics (69.0). Based on the results of the IKK study, some suggestions that can be taken into account to improve the level of family well -being are to improve family living standards, increase family resilience, balance work and family demands as well as increase awareness on family safety.
 
 
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Kajian kesihatan reproduktif & seksual remaja
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Muhammad Sapri, Noor Azlin and
Ahmad, Norliza and
Ishak, Ismahalil and
Ahmad, Noor Ani and
Aris, Tahir and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The increase in reproductive and social health issues among adolescents has been hotly debated both nationally and internationally. Every day, Malaysians are presented with news on adolescent misconduct, especially those involving cases of abortion and out -of -wedlock pregnancies. Therefore, a specific study to look at the level of reproductive and sexual health of adolescents and the factors that influence it was conducted based on the results of the national level of adolescent health research. Methodology this cross -sectional study was conducted in 2010 using secondary data from the Adolescent Health Screening Form (BSSK/R/1/2008) which was filled by trainees of the National Service Training Program (NSTP) in 80 NSTP camps throughout the country. To achieve the objectives of the study, the analysis used is descriptive analysis, chi -square test and logistic regression using SPSS software. The parameters studied included socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, ethnicity and level of education) and social characteristics (risky behavior, history of abuse, anti-social behavior, substance abuse, religion, and family relationships). While there are nine (9) SRH issues that were studied, namely masturbation, watching pornography, extramarital sex, multi -partner sex, STIs, homosexual tendencies, homosexual relationships, pregnancy and abortion. Results A total of 23,231 data were analyzed. Of these, a total of 22,750 respondents aged 18-24 years were screened for the purpose of study analysis. The results of the analysis showed that the issue of watching and reading pornographic material among adolescents recorded the highest percentage (39.5%) followed by masturbation (28.5%) and extramarital sex (6.5%). All socio -demographic factors studied had a significant relationship with extramarital sex, homosexual predisposition and abortion (p <0.05). Risk factors for extramarital sex are the age group of 20-24 years (OR = 2.710, SK95% 1.967, 3.759), risky behavior (OR = 30.495 SK95% 19.683, 47.427), involvement in substance abuse (OR = 12.33 SK95% 8,051, 18,891), anti-social (OR = 2,615 SK95% 2,206, 3,100) and ever abused (OR = 1,726 SK95% 1,389, 2,145). While the appreciation of religion is a protective factor for adolescents where the study found that adolescents who appreciate religion are twice as likely to have sex compared to adolescents who do not appreciate religion. There is no evidence to suggest that familial relationship variables influence adolescents to have sex. Conclusion overall it can be concluded that adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues need to be given serious attention. This is because the results of the study show that the trend of extramarital sex among adolescents which is a key indicator of the level of adolescent reproductive and sexual health issues has increased from 2.2% in 2004 (MPFS-4) to 6.5% in 2010. Therefore, multisectoral cooperation programs are needed to address this issue. The implementation of intervention programs should also be focused on high-risk adolescents such as having risky behaviors, anti-social and involved in cases of substance abuse. The planning and preparation of the program must also take into account the concepts and teachings of religion practiced in Malaysia through an approach that can be accepted by adolescents. Further studies need to be conducted more extensively taking into account other factors that have yet to be explored.
 
 
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Income security systems in the Republic of Korea? Directions for development
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Donghyun, Park and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The four goals of public pensions - extension of coverage, provision of adequate benefits, an equitable share of costs between generations, and financial stability - are all important. However, as these four goals conflict and influence one another, it is difficult to attain them simultaneously. Therefore, it is necessary to compromise these goals at a certain level. National Pension in Korea has been developed within an astonishingly short period. However, coverage is still unsatisfactory and long-term financial state is unstable. These two issues seem to be the most urgent reform priorities. The former may be the most important issue because National Pension exists for the income security of people. Meanwhile, adequacy of benefit was partly relaxed through two reforms. Though long-term financial stability and equity between generations have been improved through some sacrifice of benefit level, these issues are still regarded as unresolved and need additional measures in Korea, one of the most rapidly ageing countries. In this paper, we examine the four major goals of National Pension, namely coverage, adequacy of benefit, inter-generational equity, and long-term financial stability. The coverage of the scheme should be extended and the average contribution period should be increased. Coverage must increase 10% by 2030 in terms of the ratio of old age pensioners to total old age people aged 65 and over. The benefit level of the National Pension may be targeted to 30% of average earnings in real term as of 2030. Other sources of old-age income can be from working, private pensions, and savings. For more stable finance and better equity between generations, we review four financial goals.
 
 
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Strategi kelangsungan hidup pekerja asing warga Indonesia dan implikasi sosial akibat kehadiran mereka di Sabah
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Sayed Mahadi, Syed Abdul Razak and
Hugo, Graeme and
Rudd, Dianne and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Sabah's direction focuses on the development of 3 main sectors such as agriculture, tourism and manufacturing to drive the economy. As an agro -economy -based state, the 2010 census recorded 30 per cent of the total workforce engaged in the agricultural sector. As locals are not interested in seizing employment opportunities in the 3D -based agriculture and plantation sector (Difficult, Dirty & Dangerous), job vacancies are filled mainly by Indonesian workers as shown in data obtained from Temporary Work Visit Passes (TWVP). Certainly, their presence has social implications for the state of Sabah which housed 27.7 percent of the foreign population in 2010. Therefore, a micro study needs to be conducted to understand and analyze this situation. A joint study was conducted with NPFDB, in which a total of 896 respondents consisting of Indonesian workers from the plantation, manufacturing, construction, services and informal sectors were interviewed in a survey in the Tawau Division in 2010. In addition, primary data were also collected from interviews. Conducted among legal and illegal employees as well as based on the researcher’s observations. Interviews with government officials directly involved with the management and recruitment of foreign workers were also conducted. Secondary data were obtained from various government agencies in Sabah such as the Immigration Department, Manpower Department, Statistics Department, Health Department and Education Department. This study successfully identified 5 survival strategies that are often used by Indonesian workers to ensure the success of their migration, namely family networking, choice of residence, cultural adaptation and assimilation, economic survival and involvement in social and political institutions. Of course, the implementation of this strategy has a social impact on the local people. Important findings of this study show that most Indonesian workers come to Sabah with family members. Certainly the presence of spouses and children has huge implications for social facilities especially health and education. Therefore, there must be integration between the entry of foreign workers with Sabah's development planning, especially if the dependence on foreign labor continues until Sabah achieves the status of a technology - intensive economy in the future.
 
 
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Population aging in China: features, challenges & strategies
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Zhang, Yang and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Global response to population aging is confronted by a series of severe challenges, for example retirement and medical/caring costs adds to fiscal burdens, population aging withers the labor force, development and aging problems intermingle as growth of the aged population mostly takes place in developing countries and poverty of the aged remains an acute problem. All these issues may only be addressed when national governments all over the world take the needs of the aged into full consideration in developing their social policies, establish specific strategies for responding to population aging and incorporate such strategies into long-term national development frameworks. Population aging also reflects the progress and achievement that the human society has made in extending life expectancy, improving mother and child health and helping women realize family planning. Seniors are more than just beneficiaries of social welfare. As producers, consumers, spreaders of traditional cultures, care-takers of children in their families and communities, seniors also play positive irreplaceable roles. A shared goal for us all therefore is to regard aging as an achievement, respond to age-related issues with a positive, optimistic and rational altitude, view skills, experiences and resources of the elderly as capital of the social development course, incorporate aging into our development agendas, promote positive aging and thereby construct a sharing society regardless of age.
 
 
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2011 (4)




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The 44th session of the Commission on Population and Development on agenda item 4: general debate on national experience in population matters: fertility, reproductive health and development, 11th April, 2011
Item Type: Country Statement
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  11/04/2011
Abstract:  Fertility among Malaysian women is declining faster than expected due to the increase in the average age at first marriage for women that has risen from 24.7 years in 1991 to 25.3 in 2004. Malaysia's total fertility rate (TFR) is expected to reach the replacement level by year 2015. With more and more women participating in the labour force and prioritising career development, this has also led to many highly educated women choosing to marry late or not to marry at all. Malaysia hopes to sustain the current fertility rate and not let it fall below replacement level. Sustaining the current TFR of 2.3 is one of the major challenges that has to be monitored as it can lead to contraction of labour supply, rapid aging of the population and other social implications.
 
 
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2010 (2)


2009 (6)




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Socio-economic correlates of fertility in Peninsular Malaysia
Item Type: Thesis
Author: 
Mahmud, Adzmel and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  01/04/2009
Abstract:  The main aim of this paper is to examine the fertility trends and differentials among Peninsular Malaysia women based on the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey (MPFS-4) according to selected socio-economic variables which were found to have significant effect on number of children ever born. Findings from the study reveal that mean number of children ever born has dropped from 4.2 children in 1974 to 3.6 children in 1984, 3.4 children in 1994 and continued to decline to 3.1 in 2004. Fertility level is highest among Malays, who resides in rural areas, eastern region, lower educational level, women who had never worked, women whose husbands worked in agricultural sector and family income less than RM1000 a month. Socio-economic variables can only affect the fertility level through the intermediate variables such as postponement of marriage and use of contraception. There is an upward trend in age at first marriage from 17.6 years in 1974 to 22.0 years in 2004. Marriage postponement is more pronounced among highly educated Chinese women, followed by the Indians and the Malays. The contraceptive prevalence rate was highest among Chinese, followed by the Indians and the Malays. Ethnic differentials in number of children ever born are rather pronounced. In the multivariate context, after adjusting for age and age at first marriage, the differential in the mean number of children ever born among ethnic groups remain discernible. The socio¬economic variables have different effects on the fertility level of each ethnic group. 'Region' emerges as the most important predictor of Malay fertility, while 'work pattern' and 'family income' is the most important predictor of Chinese and Indian fertility respectively. Based on the present trend, it is highly likely that the fertility will reach replacement level by 2020, and the 70 million population target is unlikely to be achieved through natural increase. There is a need for the government to give some attention to the trend in delayed and non-marriage as this will determine to a large extent the future course of population growth in Malaysia.
 
 
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The 42nd session of the Commission on Population and Development on agenda item 4: general debate on national experience in population matters: contribution of the programme of action of the international conference on population and development to the internationally agreed development goals, including the millenium development goals, New York, 31st March, 2009
Item Type: Country Statement
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  31/03/2009
Abstract:  Malaysia has achieved most of the goals set in the ICPO-PoA, other development goals including the MDGs in the areas of poverty reduction, universal education, reductions in maternal and child mortality, gender equality, and environmental sustainability. The challenge for Malaysia is to maintain the momentum in dealing decisively the remainder of the MOG goals especially in reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS, and to identify the next set of priorities that will keep the nation moving ahead towards its ultimate objective of becoming a fully developed nation.
 
 
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2008 (7)




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The changing age structures of population and their implications for development: the case of Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Ab. Razak, Rohani and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2008
Abstract:  The transition from a regime of high mortality and high fertility to one of low mortality and low fertility in Malaysia is a relative recent phenomenon compared to the experience of developed countries. Unlike most developed countries where the demographic transition occurred in the early or mid-nineteenth century, in Malaysia the transition started in the immediate post World War II period, beginning with a reduction in mortality. The crude death rate in 1947 was about 20 deaths per thousand population, which has since declined drastically to a very low level of 4.5 deaths per thousand population in 2006. At present, the crude death rate in Malaysia is much lower than those of the developed countries. Such rapid decline was due to the availability of modern medical and health facilities besides the general improvement in socio-economic conditions of the country. This very low rate is attributed to the young age structure of the Malaysian population.
 
 
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2007 (3)


2006 (2)


2005 (3)


2004 (5)




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Implementation of the ICPD-PoA in Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2004
Abstract:  The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo in 1994 was regarded as a landmark in the population and development field. At this conference,179 countries,including Malaysia,adopted a 20-year Programme of Action(PoA).The ICPD-PoA calls for empowering of women and providing them with more choices through access to education and health services and promoting skill development and employment.The PoA includes goals in regard to education, especially for girls, and for further reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality levels. It also addresses issues relating population;the environment and consumption patterns; the family; internal and international migration; prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS pandemic; information,education and communication;and research and development.This report assesses the progress made by Malaysia in the implementation of ICPD-PoA and in meeting the Millennium Development goals (MDGs). It provides a situational analysis of the population,development,reproductive health and gender related issues, and discusses the various policies and programmes implemented to achieve the objectives of ICPD-PoA. It also emerging challenges and opportunities and put forth some recommended strategies to further strengthen ICPD-PoA implementation in Malaysia.
 
 
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2003 (2)


2002 (4)


2001 (3)




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Kajian Penduduk dan Keluarga Setinggan di Lima Bandar Utama, Semenanjung Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2001
Abstract:  This study is to collect information on the population and squatter families from the demographic and socio-economic aspects. A total of 1.423 dwellings in slum areas has been carried out censorship. Of this amount, a total of 7.310 identified household members and 1,308 ever married women aged 15 to 49 years were selected. The study was conducted in five major cities in Peninsular Malaysia, namely, Ipoh, Sungai Petani, Petaling Jaya, Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru. The study covers the demographic information, housing and environmental conditions, the labor force participation, aspects of migration and relocation, neighborhood issues and community life, family interaction and communication between family members, reproductive health and health practices, child care issues, aspirations / hope respondents about their children's education in the future, and interaction respondent / husband with parents.
 
 
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2000 (3)




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 7
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Kajian kesan pendatang asing ke atas penduduk tempatan: 'satu tinjauan di Mukim Setapak dan Ulu Kelang'
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2000
Abstract:  This study was conducted to gather information on the impact of immigrants on the local aspect of demographic, economic, social, education, employment, health and safety. By using qualitative methods, fieldwork has successfully interviewed include locals, foreigners, government officials and community leaders. The study found that over 70 percent of respondents say that the locals immigrants chose Malaysia because of the economic opportunities and family ties with the local people. In addition, a stable political situation is also a cause of withdrawal immigrants into Malaysia. Almost half of the immigrants use the health facilities provided by the government. This causes the local population to resort to private clinics / hospitals that indirectly increase the cost of family expenses.
 
 
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1999 (2)




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Profil keluarga/Family profile Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
Lembaga Penduduk dan Pembangunan Keluarga Negara, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1999
Abstract:  The book on Family Profile: Findings of studies contains information from studies done by NPFDB namely Population and Family Survey,1984 and 1994, The socio-Economic effects of population Ageing in Malaysia,1986, Malaysian Family life Survey 1988, Sub-National District population Survey (Kajian Penduduk Daerah) 1992. A survey on the Effects of Socio-Economic Development on Family and Gender Relations in Kuala Lumpur,1995, Adolescents Social Behaviour in Malaysia 1994/95, Adolescents Social Behaviour 1993 and Terengganu, 1995 and Adolescents Reproductive Health and Sexual Behaviour in Malaysia, 1994/95.The findings of these studies have been analysed and arranged according to the changing patterns and trends that have occurred to families since 1986. Some of these studies are representative of Peninsular Malaysia while others are confined only to certain areas of the Peninsular. Nevertheless, the description of situations derived from these findings are consistent and reliable.
 
 
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1998 (2)


1992 (2)


1984 (2)


1979 (2)


No File
Study on migration: study of four major cities in Peninsular Malaysia
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Family Planning Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Family Planning Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1979
Abstract:  This study aims at providing some information about the origin of the migrants in terms of place of birth and previous residence and reason for making the moves. The problem of excessive population growth rate in the metropolitan areas of less developed countries has been a major area of concern. In Peninsular Malaysia, the average annual population growth rate in urban areas during the 1970-1980 period was 4.7 per cent while in the rural areas it was only 0.9 per cent. This difference was due not only to differences in rates of natural increase but mainly because of internal migration. Such trends in migration will have significant demographic and socio-economic effects on both the rural and urban areas. Studies on internal migration in Malaysia have focus primarily on the analysis of levels and trends, using data available from population census. Information obtained from such data are rather limited and thus sample surveys have been conducted to gather detailed information regarding reasons for migration, migrants characteristics, migration related decision-making process and post-migration adaptation.