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TOPICS

Results for Topics : "Ageing"

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Gaya hidup wanita dan faktor risiko kanser payudara: satu kajian literatur
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Affandi, Khuzailah and
Vivien, W.C. Yew and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2015
Abstract:  Breast cancer is currently the most common cancer in women worldwide. It is said that there is no proven method of preventing cancer. However, studies have shown that there are some women’s lifestyle factors that have been scientifically shown to increase the risk of breast cancer. A review of the literature from the epidemiological, medical, and psychosocial disciplines strives to analyse factors that tend to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Published material reviewed concerning the connection between breast cancer risk and lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This review shows that several women’s lifestyle factors have been regularly considered as risk factors for developing breast cancer. They include women who have not had children or women who had their first child at an older age, short duration of brestfeeding or not breastfeed at all, diet and nutrition, and psychological stress.
 
 
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Socioeconomic status of older Malaysians: a gender comparison
Item Type: Article
Author: 
Tengku Abdul Hamid, Tengku Aizan and
Masud, Jariah and
Chai, Sen Tyng and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/01/2004
Abstract:  The feminization of old age is a global phenomenon that brings with it unique and multiple challenges. Cumulative effects of past (and present) gender inequality only further compound the difficulties older women face in later life.The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the socioeconomic status between older men and women. A survey of the older population living in the community was conducted from 22nd October till 8th December 1999.The sample was derived from stratified district (rural and urban) of 4 states (Johor, Perak, Kedah, Kelantan) where 1726 older persons were successfully interviewed. Out of that sample, 843 are women. Results from the study showed that there is significant difference between older men and women in terms of monthly income(t=-3.567,p<0.01). The primary source of sustenance for older women actually comes from their adults sons (M=168.3, SD=207.8)and daughters (M=133.4,SD=190.3). The value of monetary assistance from sons increases when the female elderly have more children (r=0.123,p<0.01). There is also significant relationship between gender and other socioeconomic indicators such as employment, past occupation, education, marital status and home ownership. In conclusion, women face a greater risk in the future of a greying population as they form the major stakeholders. Being financially beholden to their adult children, older Malaysian women's dependency is an important issue that requires attention. Further investigation is needed to determine if the gender differences will translate or relate to other variables such as health and overall well being.
 
 
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Conference or Workshop Item (18)




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Social pension, aging and poverty in Malaysia
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Mohd, Saidatulakmal and
Mansor, Norma and
Ku Ahmad, Shamsulbahriah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2014
Abstract:  The increasing number of elderly in Malaysia calls for a more stringent policy to safeguard the well-being of the elderly. The old age protection such as the pension scheme, Employees Provident Fund and the old age cash assistance although in tact, deemed to be inadequate to eradicate elderly poverty. One possible solution to secure financial protection during old age is through social pension that provides non-labor income for the retirees or elderly with the purpose of preventing or reducing elderly poverty. This paper attempts to estimate the financial cost of social pension scheme and quantify its potential role in reducing elderly poverty in Malaysia. The financial cost of social pension scheme was calculated as a percentage to GDP. By using the 2009 household income expenditure survey, the paper estimated the potential roles of social pension in eradicating elderly poverty. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the cost social pension could be kept at an average of 1.30 percentage of GDP. The 2009 HIES data also indicated that poverty could be eventually be eradicated with social pension while cost of the social pension was kept at reasonable levels.
 
 
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Financing old age in a rapidly ageing high income city state: the case of Singapore
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Asher, Mukul G. and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Singapore, an affluent city state, is among the most rapidly ageing society globally. This is due to low fertility rate (TFR of 1.2 in 2011); and increasing life expectancy (18.3 years for men and 21.8 years for women at age 65 in 2011). Its support ratio (working age persons/elderly) is projected to decline from 7.9 in 2011 to 2.2 by 2030, representing a steep decline. It primarily relies on a mandatory savings tier to finance old age. This tier is administered by a statutory Board called Central Provident Fund (CPF) under the Ministry of Manpower. The CPF has over the years been used not just for retirement, but for housing health care, and other purposes. Its wide scope and mandate has resulted in considerable complexity. This paper provides an assessment of the extent to which the current old age financing arrangements are likely to address longevity, inflation, and survivors’ risks faced by individuals in their old age. Not only each person will need support for a longer period in old age, but societal and individual expectations about old age support are also changing, reflecting the affluent society.
 
 
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Social and economic aspects of elderly in Thailand
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Chandoevwit, Worawan and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Thailand is already an aging society. About 14% of population are elderly. Using a national survey, it can be shown that 16% of elderly households in the rural area have substandard living condition. The majority of elderly (60%) rely on remittance for their living. About 20% of elderly have to work for living and only 4% have government pension. Thailand is now organizing a National Saving Fund to promote saving for retirement. Another national survey finds that 80% of population want to save for their retirement but only 48% think that they can make regular monthly saving. This is consistent with another survey which finds that 50%-60% of elderly actually prepared themselves physically and mentally into the elder period. Elderly are less happy than the young. They are quite healthy, about 90% of those in the 65-74 age group can take care of themselves. It was quite normal in the Thai culture that children take care of their old parents. Above 80% of population expect that their children will take care of them physically, mentally, and financially when they become old. Taking care of old parents is something done by daughter. About 45% of elderly who are older than 94 years are taken care by daughter or daughter-in-law, another 38% take care of themselves. UN projects that Thailand will have 20 million elderly in the next 20 years which makes the elderly account for 26% of population or 45% of working age population. Without income security and long term care schemes for elderly, it would be very difficult for children to take care of their parents.
 
 
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Productive aging - role of NGO
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Cumaraswamy, Jayalatchumy and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Butler and Gleason (1985) define productive ageing as “the capacity of an individual or a population to serve in the paid workforce, to serve in volunteer activities, to assist in the family and to maintain himself or herself as independent as possible.” USIAMAS is a non-governmental organization (NGO), registered in 2002 with the Registrar of Societies. It is a non-profit and welfare related organization whose members are senior citizens themselves. USIAMAS was formed with the objectives of being a smart partner or consultant to government, corporate and other volunteer bodies who share the same mission and vision of planning, implementing, coordinating, evaluating policies, projects and programs for the wellbeing of senior citizens towards quality and meaningful life. Among the various programs run by USIAMAS to support productive ageing are seminars, capacity training programs for volunteers and with the cooperation of the Social Welfare Department of Malaysia manages an Activity Center for Senior Citizens in Kompleks Penyayang Sungai Buloh. USIAMAS was honored to be chosen by HELPAGE Korea to implement a pilot project on home-help in 2005. Home-help is a community support program aimed at ‘recruiting, developing and deploying volunteers to make regular visits as informal companions and soft-skilled caregivers to older persons staying in their homes.’The normal duties of a volunteer in a home-help program include ‘personal grooming, running errands, feeding, reminders on medication, writing letters, accompanying them on recreational activities, visit to hospitals, banks or supermarkets’ More often the mere art of listening and responding to the needs of older persons will help to overcome their feelings of ‘rejection, isolation, boredom and loneliness’. The pilot project which commenced in 2005 has now been extended to Negeri Sembilan and Melaka with the support of the Social Welfare Department of Malaysia.
 
 
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The Philippine pension system: promoting fairness and sustainability
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Estrada, Gemma and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  This paper presentation about sharing knowledge on the retirement system in the Phillippines, currently characterized by a four-pillar structure. The first pillar refers to social assistance programs created to address the needs of the elderly poor. The second pillar covers the following mandatory defined-benefit programs: (i) the Social Security System (SSS) for private sector workers, (ii) the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) for public sector workers, and (iii) the Armed Forces of the Philippines Retirement Service Benefit System for the military, which altogether cover about 79% of the labor force. The third pillar encompasses mandatory defined contribution programs, which can be further expanded. The fourth and final pillar covers voluntary pension programs, involving various forms of savings instrument. Because the pension system is fragmented, contributions and benefits vary depending on the program.
 
 
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Social protection for the older people in Vietnam: challenges and reform options
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Giang, Thanh Long and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  This paper aims to argue that the Vietnamese population has been aging more quickly than expected, and as such policies toward an aging population, particularly delivery of social protection services for the aged, should be well-prepared from now in order to have older and wealthier population in the coming decades. The paper shows that the social protection schemes in Viet Nam, especially pensions and social allowances, have expanded and reached various groups of old-age persons and played an important role in reducing old-age poverty. Yet, there have remained a number of challenges that will substantially influence the current system in term of financial sustainability and generational equity. For the pension scheme, the paper argues that the current setting will not be financially stable and generational equity and as such it should be transformed toward a new setting. For the social allowances, a universal cash transfer program for older people would be influential and cost-saving in terms of poverty reduction.
 
 
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Home care for older people in ASEAN member countries
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Cho, Hyunse and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  It is estimated that population of over 60 years in the South-Asia will triple between 2000 and 2050. By 2050, one out of four older people will be over the age of 80. This causes a growing need for welfare and health services for older people. However, the traditional family support system is under pressure due to the trend towards nuclear families, prevailing migration of children and increasing participation of women in the workforce. In most developing countries, the lack of appropriate programmes, policies and financing places further strain on an already stressed family system. In order to meet the growing needs of “CARE” services for older people in the community, HelpAge Korea have implemented HOME CARE project under the ROK-ASEAN Cooperation Project, which provides basic social and health related care services for older people who are poor and having difficulties of ADL at their home by volunteers. The HOME CARE project has been implemented in collaboration with government, non-government organizations and community people in 10 ASEAN member countries for 9 years from April 2003 to May 2012. The presentation shares the outcomes of HOME CARE project that has been successfully conducted in terms of developing localized model, strengthening GO & NGO collaboration for the expansion and influencing GO to integrate HOME CARE into policy framework. HOME CARE is one of community based care system to reduce the burden of the society and to improve the quality of life of older people. However, in responding to the need of vulnerable older people, there is no single solution but a series of care system is necessary. The presentation shares the future plan of ROK-ASEAN Cooperation Project on COMMUNITY BASED SERVICES of HelpAge Korea.
 
 
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Meeting the needs of older Malaysians: expansion, diversification, and multi-sector collaboration
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Tengku Abdul Hamid, Tengku Aizan and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  The older population in Malaysia grew from 0.5 million in 1970 to almost 2.3 million in 2010, making up about 8% of the current total population. By 2020, one in ten Malaysians will be an older persons aged 60 years or over. Older Malaysians are a heterogeneous group with diverse demographic, socio-economic, cultural and religious characteristics. This paper assesses the adequacy, affordability, sustainability, equitability, predictability and robustness of current policies, programs and services to meet the needs of the ageing population in Malaysia. Based on the World Bank’s multipillar pension taxonomy, the analysis will focus on the social assistance scheme for the elderly (BOT), Pay-as-you-go financed state pension (JPA) and defined contribution funds (EPF). Between conditional cash transfers and mandatory retirement savings, the central role of informal support systems in old age has often been overlooked. Result from the past studies have shown that the family has played a central role in providing care and support for aged in Malaysia. A majority of older Malaysians still co-reside with their adult children and receives financial assistance from them. Older Malaysians today are living longer, better educated and wealthier and they will become consumers of a burgeoning silver industry. Balancing social and economic priorities in national development is a challenging task, but the two goals are not mutually exclusive. My topic focus on welfarism or paternalism will continue to render ageing populations as a dependent population, instead of empowering them. An inter-dependence approach, rooted in a mix of individual responsibility, family obligations, active civil society and state provisions (regulatory and non-regulatory), will enable a more broad-based and sustainable solution to meet the present and future needs of the elderly.
 
 
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Retirement planning: Dynamic and holistic approach in bridging the gaps and mitigating the risks
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Othman, Hamadah and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Most of us will one day row old and frail. Some will be fortunate enough to be endowed with wealth and good health in retirement years. But others in fact many of us, some call it the 99% group, will not be so fortune. We may have wealth but not health. We may be healthy but not wealthy. Many will probably have enough income to put food and drink on the table, and roof over the head, but will there be enough to cover unexpected expenses? Can we depend on our children to financially and/or physically take care of us in our golden years? They too will likely be facing similar problems such as soaring costs of housing, children’s education, lifestyle upgrading, busy schedule and others making it less likely that we can depend on them for assistance. This paper discusses the needs as we age, identifies gaps that may occur and suggests the best ways for us to share and meet needs as individuals and as a nation. Retirement planning is dynamic and holistic. We are not just planning to build up wealth and good health, we must also plan to protect our wealth and health. When planning for retirement, all risks that we might face must be understood at the outset and strategies to mitigate them must be worked out.
 
 
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Population aging in China: features, challenges & strategies
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Zhang, Yang and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2012
Abstract:  Global response to population aging is confronted by a series of severe challenges, for example retirement and medical/caring costs adds to fiscal burdens, population aging withers the labor force, development and aging problems intermingle as growth of the aged population mostly takes place in developing countries and poverty of the aged remains an acute problem. All these issues may only be addressed when national governments all over the world take the needs of the aged into full consideration in developing their social policies, establish specific strategies for responding to population aging and incorporate such strategies into long-term national development frameworks. Population aging also reflects the progress and achievement that the human society has made in extending life expectancy, improving mother and child health and helping women realize family planning. Seniors are more than just beneficiaries of social welfare. As producers, consumers, spreaders of traditional cultures, care-takers of children in their families and communities, seniors also play positive irreplaceable roles. A shared goal for us all therefore is to regard aging as an achievement, respond to age-related issues with a positive, optimistic and rational altitude, view skills, experiences and resources of the elderly as capital of the social development course, incorporate aging into our development agendas, promote positive aging and thereby construct a sharing society regardless of age.
 
 
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Fertility transition in Asia in relation to family and population aging
Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item
Author: 
Gubhaju, Bhakta, B. and
Author: 
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/2006
Abstract:  Declining fertility and increasing longevity have brought about remarkable shifts in the age structure of the population. Europe, Northern America and Australia/New Zealand initially experienced one of such inevitable demographic events, that is population aging. While the transition from the young-age population to the aging population occurred over a much longer period in the West, the speed of aging is much faster in low-fertility countries of Asia. This has now emerged as a new issue challenging many low-fertility countries in Asia, as it has implications for the family and caring for the older persons. This paper provides a general overview of the fertility transition in Asia and factors affecting the fertility decline. Focusing on low-fertility countries in Asia, the paper highlights the implications of low fertility on population aging. Various indicators of population aging, such as the changes in age structure, potential support ratio and feminization of the elderly population, are presented for a better understanding of the overall situation. Comparisons are made with Europe, Northern America and Australia/New Zealand to put forward the magnitude of the challenge. As the Asian region contains over 60 percents of the global population and has experienced a rapid decline in fertility, the absolute size of the older population is a major concern. While the overall population growth rate has been declining over time, the number of older persons is increasing at a rate at least twice as high. In addition to the increase in older persons, a gender disparity in the improvements in the life expectancy at birth is likely to be illiterate and living in poverty. Providing family support, health care and financial security are some of the contentious issues aging societies will face. There have been discussions concerning the possibility of increasing fertility in countries with below replacement fertility. It is, therefore, crucial for governments to plan for an aging society long before fertility reaches a very low level. Meanwhile, it is important for Asian countries to recognize the significance of aging problems and start formulating policies for the elderly given that it takes several decades for government old-age pension insurance schemes to mature and operate at full scale. It would be more difficult for families to care for their older members because families would be smaller, people would live longer and the migration of young adults would mean that families would fragment. the present trends present a major challenge to address the needs of families. It is, therefore, important to consider the present trends in designing social policies, put the family at the centre of any future social policy development and examine good national practices when designing a new approach to family policies.
 
 
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Study on childcare & parenting styles among working parents in Peninsular Malaysia 1998
Item Type: Research Report
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia,  and
Author: 
National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia and
Editor: 
Year:  00/00/1998
Abstract:  The Study on Childcare and Parenting Styles among working Parents in Malaysia is one of the three research issues on the family that has been identified by the Ministry of National Unity and Social Development under the "Pelan Induk Tindakan Sosial (PINTAS)". This survey is timely in view of the many challenges faced by Malaysian families who have been affected directly or indirectly by modernisation, urbanisation and industrialisation as a result of socio-economic development. Female labour force participation has increased from 37 per cent in 1970 to 42 per cent in 1991 and is expected to reach 52 per cent by year 2000. The objectives of the study were: • To study the current situation in childcare arrangements among working parents and to elicit suggestions from them regarding improvements in childcare. • To study parenting styles among working parents and to make recommendations for better parenting practices. • To use findings from the study as an input towards designing strategies and programs for the betterment of families. • To obtain indicators on childcare and parenting for the monitoring of goals and targets in the National Plan of Action on Children.
 
 
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